High Yield Classification of Drugs

Drugs with their corresponding class according to their actions. Classification of drugs which are important for all.

Antisera and Immunoglobulins

Antisera (from Horse)

Tetanus antitoxin (ATS)

Gas gangrene antitoxin (AGS)

Diphtheria antitoxin (ADS)

Antirabies serum (ARS)

Antisnake venom polyvalent

Immuneglobulins (Human)

Normal human gamma globulin

Rho (D)immuneglobulin

Tetanus immuneglobulin

Rabies immuneglobulin

Hepatitis-B immuneglobulin

Ectoparasiticides

1. Permethrin

2. Lindane (Gamma benzene hexachloride, BHC)

3. Benzyl benzoate

4. Crotamiton

5. Sulfur

6. Dicophane (DDT)

7. Ivermectin

Antiseptics and Disinfectants

1. Phenol derivatives: Phenol, Cresol, Hexylresorcinol, Chloroxylenol,Hexachlorophene

2. Oxidizing agents: Pot. permangnate, Hydrogen peroxide, Benzoyl peroxide.

3. Halogens: Iodine, Iodophores, Chlorine, Chlorophores.

4. Biguanide Chlorhexidine.

5. Quaternary ammonium (Cationic): Cetrimide, Benzalkonium chloride (Zephiran), Dequalinium chloride.

6. Soaps: of Sod. and Pot.

7. Alcohols: Ethanol, Isopropanol.

8. Aldehydes: Formaldehyde, Glutaraldehyde.

9. Acids: Boric acid, Acetic acid.

10. Metallic salts: Merbromin, Silver nitrate, Silver sulfadiazine, Mild silver protein, Zinc sulfate, Calamine, Zinc oxide.

11. Dyes: Gentian violet, Brilliant green, Acriflavine, Proflavine.

12. Furan derivative: Nitrofurazone.

Locally Acting Drugs on Skin and Mucous Membranes

A. Demulcents

1. Gum Acacia: as 2–4% pseudosolution in water.

2. Gum Tragacanth: as 2–4% pseudosolution in water.

3. Glycyrrhiza: as glycyrrhiza dry extract 1–2 g or liquid extract 2–4 ml in lozenges and mixtures.

4. Methylcellulose: 0.5% in nose drops and contact lens solution; CADILOSE 0.5% drops in 10 ml bottle.

5. Propylene glycol: 50% in water.

6. Glycerine: 10–50% in water.

 

B. Emollients

1. Vegetable oils: Olive oil, Arachis oil, Sesame oil, Cocoa butter

2. Animal products: Wool fat, Lard, Bees wax, Spermaceti

3. Petroleum products: Paraffin wax (soft/hard), Liquid paraffin

 

C. Adsorbants and Protectives

1. Dermal protectives: Magnesium stearate, Zinc stearate, Talc, Calamine, Zinc oxide, Bentonite, Starch, Boric acid, Aloe-vera gel

2. Occlusive protectives: Polyvinyl polymer, Feracrylum, Dimethicone, Sucralfate

 

F. Keratolytics and Caustics

Salicylic acid, Resorcinol, Podophyllum resin, Silver nitrate, Phenol, Trichloracetic acid, Glacial acetic acid

 

G. Antiseborrheics

Selenium sulfide, Zinc pyrithione, Sulfur, Resorcinol, Coal tar, Ketoconazole, Clotrimazole, Topical corticosteroids

 

H. Melanizing agents

1. Psoralen

2. Methoxsalen

3. Trioxsalen

Chelating Agents

1. Dimercaprol (British Antilewisite, BAL)

2. Dimercaptosuccinic acid (Succimer)

3. Calcium disodium edetate (Ca Na2 EDTA):

4. Calcium disodium DTPA

5. Penicillamine

6. Desferrioxamine

7. Deferiprone

Immunosuppressants

1. Calcineurin inhibitors (Specific T-cell inhibitors): Cyclosporine (Ciclosporin), Tacrolimus

2. Antiproliferative drugs(Cytotoxic drugs): Azathioprine, Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, Chlorambucil, Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), Sirolimus

3. Glucocorticoids: Prednisolone and others

4. Antibodies: Muromonab CD3, Antithymocyte globulin (ATG), Rho(D) immuneglobulin

Anticancer Drugs (Antineoplastic Drugs)

A. Drugs acting directly on cells (Cytotoxic drugs)

1. Alkylating agents Mechlorethamine (Mustine HCl)

Nitrogen mustards Cyclophosphamide, Ifosfamide, Chlorambucil, Melphalan, Ethylenimine Thio-TEPA, Alkyl sulfonate Busulfan, Nitrosoureas Carmustine (BCNU), Lomustine (CCNU), Triazine Dacarbazine (DTIC)

 

2. Antimetabolites

Folate antagonist Methotrexate (Mtx), Purine 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP), antagonist 6-Thioguanine (6-TG), Azathioprine, Fludarabine, Pyrimidine 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), Cytarabine antagonist (cytosine arabinoside)

 

3. Vinca alkaloids Vincristine (Oncovin), Vinblastine

4. Taxanes Paclitaxel, Docetaxel

5. Epipodophyllo Etoposide toxin

6. Camptothecin Topotecan, Irinotecan analogues

7. Antibiotics Actinomycin D (Dactinomycin) , Doxorubicin, Daunorubicin, (Rubidomycin), Mitoxantrone, Bleomycins, Mitomycin C

8. Miscellaneous Hydroxyurea, Procarbazine, L-Asparaginase, Cisplatin, Carboplatin, Imatinib

 

B. Drugs altering hormonal milieu

1. Glucocorticoids Prednisolone and others

2. Estrogens Fosfestrol, Ethinylestradiol

3. Selective estrogen Tamoxifen, Toremifene receptor modulators

4. Selective estrogen Fulvestrant receptor down regulator

5. Aromatase inhibitors Letrozole, Anastrozole, Exemestane

6. Antiandrogen Flutamide, Bicalutamide

7. 5-α reductase Finasteride, Dutasteride inhibitors

8. GnRH analogues Naferelin, Triptorelin

9. Progestins Hydroxyprogesterone caproate, etc.

Anthelmintics

1. For Roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides): Mebendazole, Albendazole, Pyrantel, Piperazine, Levamisole, Ivermectin

2. For Hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus): Mebendazole, Albendazole, Pyrantel, Levamisole

3. For threadworm (Enterobius vermicularis): Pyrantel, Mebendazole, Albendazole, Piperazine

4. For Strongyloides stercoralis: Ivermectin, Albendazole

5. For Whipworm (Trichuris trichiura): Mebendazole, Albendazole

6. For Trichinella spiralis: Albendazole, Mebendazole

7. For Filariasis (Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi): Diethyl carbamazine, Ivermectin, Albendazole

8. For Tapeworms (Taenia solium, T. saginata, Hymenolepis nana): Praziquantel, Niclosamide, Albendazole

9. For Hydatid disease (Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis): Albendazole, Mebendazole

Drugs for Leishmaniasis

1. Antimonials: Sodium stibogluconate, Meglumine antimonate

2. Diamidine: Pentamidine

3. Antifungal drugs: Amphotericin B, Ketoconazole

4. Others: Miltefosine, Paromomycin, Allopurinol

Drugs for Trichomoniasis

A. Drugs used orally

1. Metronidazole: 400 mg TDS for 7 days or 2 g single dose.

2. Tinidazole: 600 mg OD for 7 days or 2 g single dose.

3. Secnidazole: 2 g single dose.

4. Nimorazole: 2 g single dose; FLOSOGYN 250 mg tab.

 

B. Drugs used intravaginally

1. Diiodohydroxyquin: 200 mg inserted intravaginally at bed time for 1–2 weeks; FLORAQUIN 100 mg vaginal pessaries.

2. Quiniodochlor: 200 mg inserted in the vagina every night for 1–3 weeks; GYNOSAN 200 mg vaginal tab.

3. Clotrimazole: 100 mg inserted highup in vagina every night for 6–12 days; SURFAZ 100 mg vaginal tab.

4. Hamycin: 4–8 lac U intravaginally daily for 15 days; HAMYCIN VAGINAL 4 lac U ovules.

5. Natamycin: 25 mg nightly intravaginal application for 10 days; NATAMYCIN 25 mg vaginal tab.

6. Povidone-iodine: 400 mg inserted in the vagina daily at night for 2 weeks; BETADINE VAGINAL 200 mg pessaries

Drugs for Giardiasis

1. Metronidazole: 200 mg TDS (children 15 mg/kg/day) for 7 days or 2 g daily for 3 days.

2. Tinidazole/secnidazole: 2 g single dose or 0.6 g daily for 7 days.

3. Nitazoxanide: 500 mg (children 7.5 mg/kg) BD × 3 days.

4. Quiniodochlor: 250 mg TDS for 7 days.

5. Furazolidone: 100 mg TDS for 5–7 days; FUROXONE 100 mg tab, 25 mg/5 ml susp

Antiamoebic Drugs

1. Tissue amoebicides

(a) For both intestinal and extraintestinal amoebiasis:

        Nitroimidazoles : Metronidazole, Tinidazole, Secnidazole, Ornidazole, Satranidazole

        Alkaloids : Emetine, Dehydroemetine

(b) For extraintestinal amoebiasis only: Chloroquine

 

2. Luminal amoebicides

(a) Amide: Diloxanide furoate, Nitazoxanide

(b) 8-Hydroxyquinolines: Quiniodochlor (Iodochlorohydroxyquin, Clioquinol), Diiodohydroxyquin (Iodoquinol)

(c) Antibiotics: Tetracyclines

Antimalarial Drugs

1. 4-Aminoquinolines : Chloroquine, Amodiaquine, Piperaquine.

2. Quinoline-methanol : Mefloquine.

3. Cinchona alkaloid : Quinine, Quinidine.

4. Biguanide : Proguanil (Chloroguanide), Chlorproguanil.

5. Diaminopyrimidine : Pyrimethamine.

6. 8-Aminoquinolines : Primaquine, Bulaquine.

7. Sulfonamides and sulfone : Sulfadoxine, Sulfamethopyrazine, Dapsone.

8. Tetracyclines : Tetracycline, Doxycycline.

9. Sesquiterpine lactones : Artesunate, Artemether, Arteether.

10. Amino alcohols : Halofantrine, Lumefantrine.

11. Mannich base : Pyronaridine

12. Naphthoquinone : Atovaquone

Antiviral Drugs

1. Anti-Herpes virus: Idoxuridine, Acyclovir, Valaciclovir, Famciclovir, Ganciclovir, Foscarnet

 

2. Anti-Retrovirus

        (a) Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): Zidovudine (AZT), Didanosine, Zalcitabine, Stavudine, Lamivudine, Abacavir, Tenofovir

        (b) Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): Nevirapine, Efavirenz, Delavirdine

        (c) Protease inhibitors: Ritonavir, Indinavir,Nelfinavir, Saquinavir, Amprenavir, Lopinavir

 

3. Anti-Influenza virus

Amantadine, Rimantadine, Oseltamivir, Zanamivir

 

4. Nonselective Antiviral Drugs

Ribavirin, Lamivudine, Adefovir dipivoxil, Interferon α

Antifungal Drugs

1. Antibiotics

A. Polyenes: Amphotericin B, Nystatin, Hamycin, Natamycin (Pimaricin)

B. Heterocyclic benzofuran: Griseofulvin

 

2. Antimetabolite Flucytosine (5-FC)

 

3. Azoles

A. Imidazoles

        Topical: Clotrimazole, Econazole, Miconazole, Oxiconazole

        Systemic: Ketoconazole

B. Triazoles (Systemic): Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole

 

4. Allylamine Terbinafine

 

5. Other topical agents

Tolnaftate, Undecylenic acid, Benzoic acid, Quiniodochlor, Ciclopirox olamine, Butenafine, Sod. thiosulfate.

Antileprotic Drugs

1. Sulfone Dapsone (DDS)

2. Phenazine derivative Clofazimine

3. Antitubercular drugs Rifampin, Ethionamide

4. Other antibiotics Ofloxacin, Minocycline, Clarithromycin

Antitubercular Drugs

First line drugs

        1. Isoniazid (H)

        2. Rifampin (R)

        3. Pyrazinamide (Z)

        4. Ethambutol (E)

        5. Streptomycin (S)

 

Second line drugs

        1. Thiacetazone (Tzn)

        2. Paraaminosalicylic acid (PAS)

        3. Ethionamide (Etm)

        4. Cycloserine (Cys)

        5. Kanamycin (Kmc)

        6. Amikacin (Am)

        7. Capreomycin (Cpr)

 

Newer Drugs

        1. Ciprofloxacin

        2.Ofloxacin

        3. Clarithromycin

        4.Azithromycin

        5. Rifabutin

Urinary Antiseptics

1. Nitrofurantoin

2. Methenamine (Hexamine) mandelate

3. Nalidixic acid

Polypeptide Antibiotics

1. Polymyxin B:

2. Colistin sulfate

3. Bacitracin

4. Tyrothricin

Oxazolidinone

1. Linezolid

Glycopeptide Antibiotics

1. Vancomycin

2. Teicoplanin

Aminocyclitol Antibiotic

1. Spectinomycin

Lincosamide Antibiotics

1. Lincomycin

2. Clindamycin

Macrolide Antibiotics

1. Erythromycin

2. Roxithromycin

3. Clarithromycin

4. Azithromycin

5. Spiramycin

Chloramphenicol

1. Chloramphenicol

2. Chloramphenicol palmitate (tasteless insoluble ester of chloramphenicol for liquid oral formulation)

3. Chloramphenicol succinate

Tetracyclines

1. Oxytetracycline

2. Tetracycline

3. Demeclocycline

4. Doxycycline

5. Minocycline

Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

A. Systemic aminoglycosides

Streptomycin                    Gentamicin                  Kanamycin

Tobramycin                       Amikacin                     Sisomicin

Netilmicin

 

B. Topical aminoglycosides

Neomycin                           Framycetin

CEPHALOSPORINS

First generation

Parenteral : Cephalothin, Cefazolin

Oral :Cephalexin, Cephradine, Cefadroxil

 

Second generation

Parenteral : Cefuroxime, Cefoxitin   

Oral : Cefaclor, Cefuroxime axetil, Cefprozil

 

Third generation

Parenteral : Cefotaxime, Ceftizoxime, Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime,Cefoperazone

Oral : Cefixime, Cefpodoxime proxetil, Cefdinir, Ceftibuten, Ceftamet pivoxil

 

Fourth generation

Parenteral :  Cefepime, Cefpirome

PENICILLINS (Beta-Lactam Antibiotics)

A. Natural Penicillin: Benzyl Penicillin (Penicillin G)

 

B. Semisynthetic Penicillins

        1. Acid resistant alternative to penicillin G Phenoxymethyl penicillin (Penicillin V).

        2. Penicillinase resistant penicillins Methicillin, Cloxacillin.

        3. Extended spectrum penicillins

               (a) Aminopenicillins: Ampicillin, Bacampicillin, Amoxicillin.

               (b) Carboxypenicillins: Carbenicillin, Ticarcillin.

               (c) Ureidopenicillins: Piperacillin, Mezlocillin.

 

C. β-lactamase inhibitors: Clavulanic acid, Sulbactam, Tazobactam

Quinolones

1. Nonfluorinated Quinolone: Nalidixic acid

2. First generation Fluoroquinolones: Norfloxacin, Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Pefloxacin

3. Second generation Fluoroquinolones: Lomefloxacin, Levofloxacin, Sparfloxacin, Gatifloxacin, Moxifloxacin

4. Third generation Fluoroquinolones: Gemifloxacin,  Prulifloxacin

Sulfonamides

1. Short acting (4–8 hr): Sulfadiazine.

2. Intermediate acting (8–12 hr): Sulfamethoxazole.

3. Long acting (~7 days): Sulfadoxine, Sulfamethopyrazine.

4. Special purpose sulfonamides: Sulfacetamide sod., Sulfasalazine, Mafenide, Silver sulfadiazine.

Nonspecific Antidiarrhoeal Drugs

A. Absorbants: Ispaghula, Psyllium, Methylcellulose

 

B. Antisecretory drugs: Sulfasalazine, Mesalazine, Olsalazine, Balsalazide, Bismuth subsalicylate, Atropine, Octreotide, Racecadotril

 

C. Antimotility drugs (opioids): Codeine, Diphenoxylate-atropine, Loperamide

Laxatives (Purgatives, Cathartics)

1. Bulk forming agents

Dietary fibre: Bran, Psyllium (Plantago)

Ispaghula, Methylcellulose

 

2. Stool softener: Docusates (DOSS), Liquid paraffin

 

3. Stimulant purgatives

        (a) Diphenylmethanes: Phenolphthalein, Bisacodyl, Sodium picosulfate

        (b) Anthraquinones (Emodins): Senna, Cascara sagrada

        (c) 5-HT4 agonist: Tegaserod

        (d) Fixed oil: Castor oil

 

4. Osmotic purgatives:

        Magnesium salts: sulfate, hydroxide

        Sodium salts: sulfate, phosphate

        Sod. pot. tartrate

        Lactulose

Drugs for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

A. Inhibitors/neutralizers of gastric acid secretion

        1. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): Omeprazole, Pantoprazole and others.

        2. H2 blockers: Ranitidine, Famotidine

        3. Antacids: Magnesium hydroxide, Aluminium hydroxide

 

B. Barrier agent Sodium alginate

 

C. Prokinetic drugs: (Enhance LES tone and promote gastric emptying): Cisapride, Mosapride, Metoclopramide

Antiemetics

1. Anticholinergics: Hyoscine, Dicyclomine

2. H1 antihistaminics: Promethazine, Diphenhydramine, Dimenhydrinate, Cyclizine, Doxylamine, Meclozine, Cinnarizine

3. Neuroleptics: Chlorpromazine, Prochlorperazine Haloperidol, etc.

4. Prokinetic drugs: Metoclopramide, Domperidone, Cisapride, Mosapride, Itopride, Tegaserod

5. 5-HT3 antagonists: Ondansetron, Granisetron

6. Adjuvant Dexamethasone, Benzodiazepines, antiemetics: Cannabinoids (Nabilone, Dronabinol)

Drugs for Peptic Ulcer

1. Gastric acid secretion inhibitors

(a) H2 antihistamines: Cimetidine, Ranitidine, Famotidine, Roxatidine

(b) Proton pump inhibitors: Omeprazole, Esomeprazole, Lansoprazole, Pantoprazole, S (-) Pantoprazole, Rabeprazole, Dexrabeprazole.

(c) Anticholinergics: Pirenzepine, Propantheline  Oxyphenonium

(d) Prostaglandin analogues: Misoprostol

 

2. Gastric acid neutralizers (Antacids)

(a) Systemic: Sodium bicarbonate, Sod. citrate

(b) Nonsystemic: Magnesium hydroxide

Mag. trisilicate, Aluminium hydroxide gel,

Magaldrate, Calcium carbonate

 

3. Ulcer protectives

Sucralfate, Colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS)

4. Anti-H. pylori drugs

Amoxicillin, Clarithromycin, Metronidazole,

Tinidazole, Tetracycline

Plasma Expanders

1. Human Albumin

2. Dextran

3. Polygeline (degraded gelatin polymer)

4. Hetastarch (Hydroxyethyl starch, HES)

5. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)

Hypolipidaemic Drugs

1. HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins): Lovastatin, Simvastatin, Pravastatin, Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin

2. Bile acid sequestrants (Resins): Cholestyramine, Colestipol

3. Lipoprotein lipase activators (Fibric acid derivatives): Clofibrate, Gemfibrozil, Bezafibrate, Fenofibrate.

4. Inhibitor of triglyceride synthesis and lipolysis: Nicotinic acid

5. Others: Gugulipid, Ezetimibe

Antiplatelet Drugs (Antithrombotic Drugs)

1. Aspirin

2. Dipyridamole

3. Ticlopidine

4. Clopidogrel

5. Abciximab

6. Eptifibatide

7. Tirofiban

Antifibrinolytics

1. Epsilon amino-caproic acid (EACA)

2. Tranexaemic acid:

3. Aprotinin

Fibrinolytics (Thrombolytics)

1. Streptokinase

2. Urokinase

3. Alteplase (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA)

4. Reteplase

5. Tenecteplase

Anticoagulants

1. Used in vivo

A. Parenteral anticoagulants

        Heparin, Low molecular weight heparin

        Heparinoids–Heparan sulfate, Danaparoid, Lepirudin, Ancrod

B. Oral anticoagulants

        (i) Coumarin derivatives: Bishydroxycoumarin (Dicumarol), Warfarin sod., Acenocoumarol (Nicoumalone), Ethylbiscoumacetate

        (ii) Indandione derivative: Phenindione

 

2. Used in vitro

A. Heparin

B. Calcium complexing agents: Sodium citrate, Sodium oxalate, Sodium edetate

Coagulants

1. Vitamin K

        K1 [from plants, : Phytonadione (Phylloquinone) fat soluble]

        K2 (produced by : Menaquinones bacteria)

        K3 (synthetic)

               —Fat soluble : Menadione, Acetomenaphthone

               —Water soluble : Menadione sod. bisulfite, Menadione sod. diphosphate

 

2. Miscellaneous : Fibrinogen (human)

        : Antihaemophilic factor

        : Adrenochrome monosemicarbazone

        : Rutin, Ethamsylate

Haematinics

1. Iron

        (a) Oral: Ferrous sulfate, Ferrous fumarate, Ferrous gluconate, Ferrous succinate, Colloidal ferric hydroxide, Iron hydroxy polymaltose, Ferric ammonium citrate, Iron calcium complex, Carbonyl iron

        (b) Parenteral: Iron-dextran, Iron-sorbitol-citric acid

 

2. Maturation factors

        (a) Vitamin B12: Cyanocobalamin. Hydroxocobalamin, Methylcobalamin

        (b) Folic acid, Folinic acid (leucovorin, citrovorum factor, 5-formyl THFA)

 

3. Miscellaneous: Copper, Pyridoxine, Riboflavin

Antidiuretics

1. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and its analogues: Vasopressin, Desmopressin, Lypressin, Terlipressin.

2. Diuretics: Thiazides, Amiloride.

3. Miscellaneous: Chlorpropamide, Carbamazepine.

Diuretics

1. High efficacy diuretics (Inhibitors of Na+-K+-2Cl¯ cotransport)

        (a) Sulphamoyl derivatives: Furosemide, Bumetanide, Torasemide

        (b) Phenoxyacetic acid derivative: Ethacrynic acid.

 

2. Medium efficacy diuretics (Inhibitors of Na+-Cl¯ symport)

        (a) Benzothiadiazines (thiazides): Hydrochlorothiazide, Benzthiazide, Hydroflumethiazide, Clopamide

        (b) Thiazide like (related heterocyclics): Chlorthalidone, Metolazone, Xipamide, Indapamide.

 

3. Weak or adjunctive diuretics

        (a) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: Acetazolamide

        (b) Potassium sparing diuretics

               (i) Aldosterone antagonist: Spironolactone, Eplerenone

               (ii) Inhibitors of renal epithelial Na+ channel: Triamterene, Amiloride

        (c) Osmotic diuretics: Mannitol, Isosorbide, Glycerol

        (d) Xanthines: Theophylline

Antiarrhythmic Drugs

CLASS I: Membrane stabilizing agents (Na+ channel blockers)

        A. Moderately decrease dv/dt of 0 phase: Quinidine, Procainamide, Disopyramide, Moricizine

        B. Little decrease in dv/dt of 0 phase: Lidocaine, Mexiletine

        C. Marked decrease in dv/dt of 0 phase: Propafenone, Flecainide

 

CLASS II: Antiadrenergic agents (β blockers): Propranolol, Esmolol, Sotalol (also class III)

 

CLASS III: Agents widening AP (prolong repolarization and ERP): Amiodarone, Bretylium (also class II), Dofetilide, Ibutilide

 

CLASS IV: Calcium channel blockers

Verapamil, Diltiazem

Note: Class IA agents also have Class III property; propranolol has Class I action as well; sotalol and bretylium have both Class II and Class III actions.

 

Additional antiarrhythmic drugs

1. For paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT): Adenosine, Digitalis.

2. For atrio-ventricular (A-V) block: Sympathomimetics—Isoprenaline, etc.

Anticholinergics—Atropine

Drugs for Congestive Heart Failure

1. Inotropic drugs

        (a) Cardiac glycosides: Digoxin, Digitoxin, Ouabain

        (b) Sympathomimetics: Dobutamine, Dopamine

        (c) Phosphodiesterase III inhibitors: Amrinone (Inamrinone), Milrinone

 

2. Diuretics

        (a) High ceiling diuretics: Furosemide, Bumetanide

        (b) Thiazide like diuretics: Hydrochlorothiazide, Metolazone, Xipamide

 

3. Inhibitors of Renin-Angiotensin system

        (a) ACE-inhibitors: Enalapril, Ramipril and others

        (b) Angiotensin (AT1 receptor) antagonists: Losartan and others

 

4. Vasodilators

        (a) Venodilator: Glyceryl trinitrate and other nitrates

        (b) Arteriolar dilator: Hydralazine

        (c) Arteriolar + Venodilator: Sod. Nitroprusside

 

5. β-Adrenergic blockers: Metoprolol, Bisoprolol, Carvedilol

 

6. Aldosterone antagonist: Spironolactone, Eplerenone

Drugs for Peripheral Vascular Diseases

1. Rheological agent: Pentoxiphylline (Oxpentifylline)

2. Direct acting vasodilators: Cyclandelate, Xanthinol nicotinate (Nicotinyl xanthinate)

3. β-adrenergic agonists: Isoxsuprine, Nylidrin

4. α-adrenergic blockers: Prazosin, Tolazoline, Phenoxybenzamine

5. Calcium channel blockers: Nifedipine and other dihydropyridines

6. Phosphodiesterase inhibitor: Cilostazol

7. Antiplatelet drugs: Aspirin, Clopidogrel, Ticlopidine

8. Antioxidants: Vitamin E

Antianginal Drugs

1. Nitrates

        (a) Short acting: Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN, Nitroglycerine

        (b) Long acting: Isosorbide dinitrate (short acting by sublingual route), Isosorbide mononitrate, Erythrityl tetranitrate, Penta erythritol tetranitrate

 

2. β Blockers: Propranolol, Metoprolol, Atenolol and others.

 

3. Calcium channel blockers

        (a) Phenyl alkylamine: Verapamil

        (b) Benzothiazepine: Diltiazem

        (c) Dihydropyridines: Nifedipine, Felodipine, Amlodipine,

        S(-) Amlodipine, Nitrendipine, Lacidipine, Benidipine, Lercanidipine

 

4. Potassium channel opener: Nicorandil, Minoxidil

 

5. Others: Dipyridamole, Trimetazidine, Ranolazine, Ivabradine, Oxyphedrine

Antihypertensive Drugs

1. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: Captopril, Enalapril, Lisinopril, Perindopril, Ramipril,Benazepril, Trandolapril, Fosinopril, Imidapril

 

2. Angiotensin (AT1 receptor) antagonists: Losartan, Candesartan, Irbesartan, Valsartan,

Telmisartan, Olmesartan

 

3. Calcium channel blockers: Verapamil, Diltiazem, Nifedipine, Felodipine, Amlodipine, S(-) Amlodipine, Nitrendipine, Lacidipine, Benidipine, Lercanidipine

 

4. Diuretics

        Thiazides: Hydrochlorothiazide, Chlorthalidone, Indapamide

        High ceiling: Furosemide, etc.

        K+ sparing: Spironolactone, Triamterene, Amiloride

 

5. β Adrenergic blockers: Propranolol, Metoprolol, Atenolol, etc.

 

6. β + α Adrenergic blockers: Labetalol, Carvedilol

 

7. α Adrenergic blockers: Prazosin, Terazosin, Doxazosin, Phentolamine, Phenoxybenzamine

 

8. Central sympatholytics: Clonidine, Methyldopa

 

9. Vasodilators

        Arteriolar: Hydralazine, Minoxidil, Diazoxide

        Arteriolar + venous: Sodium Nitroprusside

Cognition Enhancers (Cerebroactive Drugs)

1. Cholinergic activators:Tacrine, Rivastigmine, Donepezil, Galantamine

2. Glutamate (NMDA) antagonist: Memantine

3. Miscellaneous cerebroactive drugs: Piracetam, Pyritinol (Pyrithioxine), Dihydroergotoxine (Codergocrine), Piribedil, Ginkgo biloba, Citicoline.

Central Nervous System Stimulants

1. Convulsants: Strychnine, Picrotoxin, Bicuculline, Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ).

2. Analeptics: Doxapram.

3. Psychostimulants: Amphetamines, Methylphenidate, Modafinil, Pemoline, Cocaine, Caffeine.

Complex Action Opioids and Opioid Antagonists

1. Agonist-antagonists (κ-analgesics): Nalorphine, Pentazocine, Nalbuphine, Butorphanol

2. Partial/weak μ agonist + κ antagonist: Buprenorphine

3. Pure antagonists: Naloxone, Naltrexone, Nalmefene

Opioid Analgesics

1. Natural opium alkaloids: Morphine, Codeine

2. Semisynthetic opiates: Diacetylmorphine (Heroin), Pholcodeine, Oxymorphone, Hydromorphone, Oxycodone

3. Synthetic opioids: Pethidine (Meperidine), Fentanyl, Alfentanil, Sufentanil, Methadone, Dextropropoxyphene, Tramadol

Antianxiety Drugs (Anxiolytic-sedative, Minor tranquillizer)

1. Benzodiazepines: Diazepam, Chlordiazepoxide, Oxazepam, Lorazepam, Alprazolam

2. Azapirones: Buspirone, Gepirone, Ispapirone

3. Sedative: Hydroxyzine antihistaminic

4. β blocker: Propranolol

Antidepressants

1. Reversible inhibitors of MAO-A (RIMAs): Moclobemide, Clorgyline

 

2. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)

        A. NA + 5-HT reuptake inhibitors: Imipramine, Amitriptyline, Trimipramine, Doxepin, Dothiepin, Clomipramine

        B. Predominantly NA reuptake inhibitors: Desipramine, Nortriptyline, Amoxapine, Reboxetine

 

3. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

Fluoxetine, Fluvoxamine, Paroxetine, Sertraline, Citalopram, Escitalopram

 

4. Atypical antidepressants

Trazodone, Mianserin, Mirtazapine, Venlafaxine, Duloxetine, Tianeptine, Amineptine, Bupropion

Drugs for Mania and Manic-Depressive (Bipolar) Disorder

1. Lithium carbonate

2. Anticonvulsants: Carbamazepine, Sodium valproate, Lamotrigine, Topiramate

3. Atypical antipsychotics: Olanzapine, Risperidone, Aripiprazole, Quetiapine

Antipsychotic Drugs (Neuroleptic, Major tranquillizer)

1. Phenothiazines

        Aliphatic side chain: Chlorpromazine, Triflupromazine

        Piperidine side chain: Thioridazine

        Piperazine side chain: Trifluoperazine, Fluphenazine

2. Butyrophenones: Haloperidol, Trifluperidol, Penfluridol

3. Thioxanthenes: Flupenthixol

4. Other heterocyclics: Pimozide, Loxapine, Reserpine

5. Atypical neuroleptics: Clozapine, Risperidone, Olanzapine, Quetiapine, Aripiprazole, Ziprasidone

Antiparkinsonian Drugs

1. Drugs Affecting Brain Dopaminergic System

        (a) Dopamine precursor : Levodopa (l–dopa)

        (b) Peripheral decarboxylase inhibitors: Carbidopa, Benserazide

        (c) Dopaminergic agonists: Bromocriptine, Ropinirole, Pramipexole

        (d) MAO-B inhibitor: Selegiline

        (e) COMT inhibitors: Entacapone, Tolcapone

        (f) Dopamine facilitator: Amantadine

2. Drugs Affecting Brain Cholinergic System

        (a) Central anticholinergics: Trihexyphenidyl (Benzhexol), Procyclidine, Biperiden

        (b) Antihistaminics: Orphenadrine, Promethazine.

Antiepileptic Drugs

1. Barbiturate: Phenobarbitone

2. Deoxybarbiturate: Primidone

3. Hydantoin: Phenytoin, Fosphenytoin

4. Iminostilbene: Carbamazepine, Oxcarbazepine

5. Succinimide: Ethosuximide

6. Aliphatic carboxylic acid: Valproic acid (sodium valproate), Divalproex

7. Benzodiazepines: Clonazepam, Diazepam, Lorazepam, Clobazam

8. Phenyltriazine: Lamotrigine

9. Cyclic GABA analogue: Gabapentin, Pregabalin

10. Newer drugs: Vigabatrin, Topiramate, Tiagabine, Zonisamide, Levetiracetam

Sedative-Hypnotics

1. Barbiturates

Long acting : Phenobarbitone

Short acting : Butobarbitone, Pentobarbitone

Ultra short acting : Thiopentone, Methohexitone

 

2. Benzodiazepines

Hypnotic : Diazepam, Flurazepam, Nitrazepam, Alprazolam, Temazepam, Triazolam

Antianxiety : Diazepam, Chlordiazepoxide, Oxazepam, Lorazepam, Alprazolam

Anticonvulsant : Diazepam, Lorazepam, Clonazepam, Clobazam

              

 

 

3. Newer nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics

Zopiclone, Zolpidem, Zaleplon

 

4. Other CNS depressants

Chloral hydrate, Triclophos, Paraldehyde, Glutethimide,Methyprilone, Methaqualone, Meprobamate, Promethazine, Chlorpromazine, Amitriptyline, Morphine, Hyoscine

Preanaesthetic Medication

1. Opioids: Morphine, Pethidine, Fentanyl

2. Sedative-antianxiety drugs: Diazepam, Lorazepam, Midazolam, Promethazine

3. Anticholinergics: Atropine, Hyoscine, Glycopyrrolate

4. Neuroleptics: Chlorpromazine, Triflupromazine, Haloperidol

5. Histamine H2 blockers: Ranitidine, Famotidine, etc.

6. Proton pump inhibitors: Omeprazole, Pantoprazole, etc.

7. Antiemetics: Metoclopramide, Domperidone, Ondansetron.

General Anaesthetics

Inhalational

Gas : Nitrous oxide   

Volatile liquids :

        Ether

        Halothane

        Enflurane

        Isoflurane

        Desflurane

        Sevoflurane

 

Intravenous

Inducing agents : Thiopentone sod., Methohexitone sod, Propofol, Etomidate

Slower acting drugs : Benzodiazepines, Diazepam, Lorazepam, Midazolam

 

Dissociative anaesthesia

Ketamine

Opioid analgesia

Fentanyl

Local Anaesthetics

A. Injectable anaesthetic

1. Low potency, short duration: Procaine, Chloroprocaine

2. Intermediate potency and duration: Lidocaine (Lignocaine), Prilocaine

3. High potency, long duration: Tetracaine (Amethocaine), Bupivacaine, Ropivacaine, Dibucaine (Cinchocaine)

 

B. Surface anaesthetic

Soluble        Insoluble

Cocaine        Benzocaine

Lidocaine              Butylaminobenzoate

Tetracaine             (Butamben)

Benoxinate             Oxethazaine

Skeletal Muscle Relaxants

PERIPHERALLY ACTING MUSCLE RELAXANTS

I. Neuromuscular blocking agents

A. Nondepolarizing (Competitive) blockers

        1. Long acting: d-Tubocurarine, Pancuronium, Doxacurium, Pipecuronium

        2. Intermediate acting: Vecuronium, Atracurium, Cisatracurium, Rocuronium, Rapacuronium

        3. Short acting: Mivacurium

B. Depolarizing blockers:Succinylcholine (SCh., Suxamethonium), Decamethonium

 

II. Directly acting agents

Dantrolene sodium

Quinine

 

CENTRALLY ACTING MUSCLE RELAXANTS

1. Mephenesin congeners: Mephenesin, Carisoprodol, Chlorzoxazone, Chlormezanone, Methocarbamol

2. Benzodiazepines: Diazepam and others

3. GABA derivative: Baclofen

4. Central α2 agonist: Tizanidine

Uterine Relaxants (Tocolytics)

1. β-Adrenergic agonists: Ritodrine, Salbutamol, Terbutaline, Isoxsuprine

2. Calcium channel blockers: Nifedipine (and other dihydropyridines)

3. Magnesium sulfate

4. Progesterone

5. Oxytocin antagonist: Atosiban

6. Miscellaneous drugs: Nitrates, Diazoxide, Atropine, Ethyl alcohol, Chlorpromazine, Halothane, PG synthesis inhibitors.

Uterine Stimulants (Oxytocics, Abortifacients)

1. Posterior pituitary hormone: Oxytocin; Desaminooxytocin

2. Ergot alkaloids: Ergometrine (Ergonovine), Methylergometrine

3. Prostaglandins: PGE2, PGF2α, 15-methyl PGF2α, Misoprostol

4. Miscellaneous: Ethacridine, Quinine.

Progestins

Progesterone derivatives: Medroxyprogesterone acetate, Megestrol acetate, Dydrogesterone, Hydroxyprogesterone caproate,Nomegestrol acetate

 

Nortestosterone derivatives

Older compounds : Norethindrone(Norethisterone), Lynestrenol (Ethinylestrenol), Allylestrenol, Levonorgestrel (Gonane)

Newer compounds (Gonanes) : Desogestrel, Norgestimate, Gestodene

 

Estrogens and Related Drugs

Natural Estrogens: Estradiol, Estrone, Estriol, Equilin Synthetic Estrogens

1. Steroidal: Ethinylestradiol, Mestranol, Tibolone.

2. Nonsteroidal: Diethylstilbestrol, Hexestrol, Dienestrol

Drugs for Erectile Dysfunction

1. Androgens

2. Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors: Sildenafil, Tadalafil, Vardenafil

3. Papaverine/phentolamine (intracavernosal injection)

4. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1): Alprostadil (intracavernosal injection)

Antiandrogens

Cyproterone acetate, Flutamide, Bicalutamide, Nilutamide

Androgens and Related Drugs

Natural Androgens

Testosterone, Dihydrotestosterone

Synthetic Androgens

Methyl testosterone, Fluoxymesterone, Mesterolone

TOPICAL STEROIDS

A. Potent

1. Beclomethasone 0.025% BECLATE cream dipropionate

2. Betamethasone benzoate 0.025% TOPICASONE cream, oint.

3. Betamethasone valerate 0.12% BETNOVATE cream, oint., BETASONE cream

4. Halcinonide 0.1% CORTILATE, HALOG cream

5. Clobetasol propionate 0.05% LOBATE, TENOVATE, DERMOTYL cream

6. Dexamethasone 0.1% DECADRON cream sod. phosphate (with Neomycin 0.35%)

7. Dexamethasone 0.1% MILLICORTENOL trimethyl-acetate cream

8. Fluocinolone acetonide 0.025% FLUCORT oint., LUCI oint.

9. Fluocortolone 0.5% ULTRALAN oint.

10. Triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% LEDERCORT oint.

 

Moderately potent

1. Fluocinolone acetonide 0.01% FLUCORT-H oint. and skin lotion

2. Clobetasol butyrate 0.05% EUMOSONE cream

3. Fluocortolone 0.25% COLSIPAN oint.

4. Mometasone 0.1% MOMATE, CUTIZONE oint, cream

5. Fluticasone propionate 0.05% FLUTIVATE, MOLIDERM cream

6. Hydrocortisone 1% COTARYL-H + urea 12% cream.

7. Hydrocortisone acetate 2.5% WYCORT oint.

 

Mild

1. Hydrocortisone acetate

2. Hydrocortisone butyrate 0.001% LOCOID cream

Corticosteroids

I. GLUCOCORTICOIDS

        A. Short acting: Hydrocortisone (cortisol), Cortisone

        B. Intermediate acting: Prednisolone, Methyl-prednisolone, Triamcinolone

        C. Long acting: Dexamethasone, Betamethasone, Deflazacort

 

II. MINERALOCORTICOIDS: Desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA), Fludrocortisone, Aldosterone

ORAL HYPOGLYCAEMIC DRUGS

1. Sulfonylureas

        First generation       : Tolbutamide, Chlorpropamide

        Second generation: Glibenclamide (Glyburide), Glipizide, Gliclazide, Glimepiride

 

2. Biguanide: Metformin

3. Meglitinide/Phenylalanine analogues: Repaglinide, Nateglinide

4. Thiazolidinediones: Rosiglitazone,  Pioglitazone

5. α Glucosidase inhibitors: Acarbose, Miglitol

6. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor: Sitagliptin, Vildagliptin

Antidiabetic Drugs (Hypoglycaemic Drugs)

INSULIN

A. Rapid Acting

        1. Insulin lispro

        2. Insulin aspart

        3. Insulin glulisine

 

B. Short Acting

        1. Regular (soluble) Insulin

        2. Prompt Insulin Zinc Suspension (amorphous) or Semilente

 

C. Intermediate Acting

        1. Insulin Zinc Suspension or Lente (Ultra: Semi: 7:3)

        2. Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) or Isophane Insulin

 

D. Long Acting

        1. Extended Insulin Zinc Suspension (crystalline) or Ultralente

        2. Protamine Zinc Insulin (PZI)

        3. Insulin glargine

Thyroid Inhibitors

1. Inhibit hormone synthesis (Antithyroid drugs): Propylthiouracil, Methimazole, Carbimazole

2. Inhibit iodide trapping (Ionic inhibitors): Thiocyanates (–SCN), Perchlorates (–ClO4), Nitrates (–NO3)

3. Inhibit hormone release: Iodine, Iodides of Na and K, Organic iodide.

4. Destroy thyroid tissue: Radioactive iodine (131I, 125I, 123I).

Thyroid Hormone

Thyroxine (T4)

Triiodothyronine (T3, Liothyronine)

Anterior Pituitary Hormones and Related Drugs

A. Anterior pituitary hormones

Growth hormone (GH), Prolactin (Prl.) , Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, Thyrotropin), Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, Corticotropin), Gonadotropins (Gns): Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH)

 

B. Drugs altering anterior pituitary hormone secretion

        1. Drugs inhibiting GH release: Somatostatin, Octreotide

        2. Drugs inhibiting Prl release: Bromocriptine, Cabergoline, Apomorphine

        3. Drugs enhancing Prl release: Chlorpromazine (and other neuroleptics), Metoclopramide, Reserpine

        4. Superactive/long acting GnRH agonists: Nafarelin, Triptorelin, Buserelin, Goserelin, Leuprolide

Drugs for Bronchial Asthma

A. Bronchodilators

        1. β2 Sympathomimetics: Salbutamol, Terbutaline, Bambuterol, Salmeterol, Formoterol, Ephedrine.

        2. Methylxanthines: Theophylline (anhydrous), Aminophylline, Choline theophyllinate, Hydroxyethyl theophylline, Theophylline ethanolate of piperazine, Doxophylline.

        3. Anticholinergics: Ipratropium bromide, Tiotropium bromide.

 

B. Leukotriene antagonists: Montelukast, Zafirlukast.

 

C. Mast cell stabilizers: Sodium cromoglycate, Ketotifen.

 

D. Corticosteroids

        1. Systemic: Hydrocortisone, Prednisolone and others.

        2. Inhalational: Beclomethasone dipropionate, Budesonide, Fluticasone propionate, Flunisolide, Ciclesonide.

 

E. Anti-IgE antibody: Omalizumab.

Drugs for Cough

1. Pharyngeal Demulcents

Lozenges, cough drops, linctuses containing Syrup, Glycerine, Liquorice.

 

2. Expectorants (Mucokinetics)

(a) Bronchial secretion enhancers Sodium or Potassium citrate, Potassium iodide, Guaiphenesin (Glyceryl guaiacolate), balsum of Tolu, Vasaka, Ammonium chloride.

(b) Mucolytics Bromhexine, Ambroxol, Carbocisteine,Acetylcysteine.

 

3. Antitussives (Cough centre suppressants)

(a) Opioids Codeine, Pholcodeine, Ethylmorphine.

(b) Nonopioids Noscapine, Dextromethorphan,Chlophedianol.

(c) Antihistamines Chlorpheniramine, Diphenhydramine, Promethazine.

 

4. Adjuvant Antitussives

Bronchodilators Salbutamol, Terbutalin.

Antigout Drugs

For acute gout

        NSAIDs

        Colchicine

        Corticosteroids

 

For chronic gout/hyperuricaemia

        Uricosurics Synthesis inhibitor

        Probenecid Allopurinol

        Sulfinpyrazone

Antirheumatoid Arthritis Drugs

A. Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs)

1. Immunosuppressants: Methotrexate, Azathioprine,

Cyclosporine

2. Sulfasalazine

3. Chloroquine or Hydroxychloroquine

4. Leflunomide

5. Gold sod, thiomalate, Auranofin

6. d-Penicillamine

B. Biologic Response Modifiers (BRMs)

1. TNFα inhibitors: Etanercept, Infliximab,

Adalimumab

2. IL-1 antagonist: Anakinra

c. Adjuvant Drugs

Corticosteroids: Prednisolone and others.

Antipyretic-Analgesics and Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

A. Nonselective COX inhibitors (conventional NSAIDs)

1. Salicylates: Aspirin.

2. Propionic acid derivatives: Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Ketoprofen, Flurbiprofen.

3. Anthranilic acid derivative: Mephenamic acid.

4. Aryl-acetic acid derivatives: Diclofenac, Aceclofenac.

5. Oxicam derivatives: Piroxicam, Tenoxicam.

6. Pyrrolo-pyrrole derivative: Ketorolac.

7. Indole derivative: Indomethacin.

8. Pyrazolone derivatives: Phenylbutazone, Oxyphenbutazone.

 

B. Preferential COX-2 inhibitors

Nimesulide, Meloxicam, Nabumetone, Etodolac.

 

C. Selective COX-2 inhibitors Celecoxib, Etoricoxib, Parecoxib.

 

 

D. Analgesic-antipyretics with poor antiinflammatory action

        1. Paraaminophenol derivative: Paracetamol (Acetaminophen).

        2. Pyrazolone derivatives: Metamizol (Dipyrone),

        Propiphenazone.

        3. Benzoxazocine derivative: Nefopam.

Drugs for Migraine

A. During attack

        1. Simple analgesics: Paracetamol, Aspirin (low dose), Metamizol, Codeine.

        2. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Diclofenac, Mephenamic acid.

        3. Antiemetics: Metoclopramide, Domperidone, Prochlorperazine, Promethazine.      

        4. Ergot alkaloids: Ergotamine, Dihydroergotamine (DHE).

        5. Selective 5-HT IB/ID receptor agonists: Sumatriptan, Rizatriptan, Zolmitriptan, Naratriptan, Frovatriptan.

 

B. For prophylaxis of attacks

        1. Propranolol (also other β blockers)

        2. Amitriptyline (also other tricyclic antidepressants)

        3. Flunarizine (also verapamil)

        4. Methysergide, Cyproheptadine

5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) Antagonists

1. Nonselective 5-HT antagonists/partial agonistantagonists

Ergotamine, Lysergic acid diethyl amide (LSD), 2-Bromo-LSD, Methysergide, Cyproheptadine, Cinnarizine.

 

2. 5-HT2 antagonists

Ketanserin, Ritanserin, Clozapine, Risperidone,Olanzapine.

 

3. 5-HT3 antagonists

Ondansetron, Granisetron, Tropisetron

H1-Antagonists (Conventional Antihistaminics)

1. Highly sedative

Diphenhydramine, Dimenhydrinate, Promethazine, Hydroxyzine

2. Moderately sedative

Pheniramine, Cyproheptadine, Meclozine (Meclizine), Buclizine, Cinnarizine

3. Mildly sedative

Chlorpheniramine, Dexchlorpheniramine, Dimethindine, Triprolidine, Mebhydroline, Cyclizine, Clemastine

4. Second generation (Nonsedating)

Terfenadine, Fexofenadine, Astemizole, Loratadine, Desloratadine, Cetirizine, Levocetirizine, Azelastine, Mizolastine, Ebastine, Rupatadine.

Histaminergic Agonists

1. Nonselective (H1+H2+H3) agonists: Histamine

2. Selective H1 agonists: 2-Methylhistamine, 2-Pyridyl ethylamine, 2-Thiazolyl ethylamine.

3. Selective H2 agonists: 4-Methylhistamine, Dimaprit, Impromidine.

4. Selective H3 agonists: (R) α-Methylhistamine, Imetit.

Drugs Used for Glaucoma

1. β-adrenergic blockers: Timolol, Betaxolol, Levobunolol, Cartiolol, Metipranolol.

2. α-adrenergic agonists: Adrenaline, Dipivefrine, Apraclonidine, Brimonidine.

3. Prostaglandin analogues: Latanoprost, Isopropyl unoprostone, Travoprost, Bimatoprost.

4. Miotics: Pilocarpine, Physostigmine.

5. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: Acetazolamide,Dorzolamide.

6. Osmotic diuretics: Mannitol, Glycerol (Glycerine).

β-Adrenergic Blocking Agents

Nonselective (β1 and β2)

a. Without intrinsic sympathomimetic activity: Propranolol, Sotalol, Timolol

b. With intrinsic sympathomimetic activity: Pindolol

c. With additional α blocking property: Labetalol, Carvedilol

 

Cardioselective (β1)

Metoprolol, Atenolol, Acebutolol, Bisoprolol, Esmolol,Betaxolol, Celiprolol, Nebivolol

 

 

GENERATIONWISE CLASSIFICATION

1. First Generation (older, nonselective): Propranolol, Timolol, Sotalol, Pindolol

2. Second Generation (β2 selective): Metoprolol, Atenolol, Acebutolol, Bisoprolol, Esmolol

3. Third Generation (with additional α blocking and/ or vasodilator property): Labetalol, Carvedilol, Celiprolol, Nabivolol

α-Adrenergic Blocking Agents

I. Nonequilibrium type

(i) β-Haloalkylamines: Phenoxybenzamine

 

II. Equilibrium type (competitive)

A. Nonselective

        (i) Ergot alkaloids: Ergotamine, Ergotoxine

        (ii) Hydrogenated ergot alkaloids: Dihydroergotamine(DHE), Dihydroergotoxine

        (iii) Imidazolines: Tolazoline, Phentolamine

        (iv) Miscellaneous: Chlorpromazine, Ketanserin

B. α1 selective: Prazosin, Terazosin, Doxazosin, Alfuzosin,

Tamsulosin

C. α2 selective: Yohimbine

Adrenergic Drugs (Sympathomimetics)

1. Directly acting: Adrenaline, Noradrenaline, Isoprenaline, Dopamine, Phenylephrine, Methoxamine, Xylometazoline, Salbutamol

2. Indirectly acting: Tyramine

3. Mixed action: Ephedrine, Amphetamine, Mephentermine

 

 

THERAPEUTIC CLASSIFICATION

1. Pressor agents: Noradrenaline, Phenylephrine, Ephedrine, Methoxamine, Dopamine, Mephentermine

2. Cardiac stimulants: Adrenaline, Dobutamine, Isoprenaline

3. Bronchodilators: Isoprenaline, Bambuterol, Salbutamol (Albuterol), Salmeterol, Terbutaline, Formoterol

4. Nasal decongestants: Phenylephrine,  Naphazoline, Xylometazoline, Pseudoephedrine, Oxymetazoline, Phenyl propanolamine

5. CNS stimulants: Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, Dexamphetamine

6. Anorectics: Fenfluramine, Sibutramine, Dexfenfluramine

7. Uterine relaxant and vasodilators:Ritodrine, Salbutamol, Isoxsuprine, Terbutaline

GANGLION BLOCKING AGENTS

A. Competitive blockers

        Quaternary ammonium compounds

        Hexamethonium,

        Pentolinium

        Amines (secondary/tertiary)

        Mecamylamine,

        Pempidine

        Monosulfonium compound

        Trimethaphan camforsulfonate

B. Persistent depolarising blockers

        Nicotine (large dose)

        Anticholinesterases (large dose)

GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS

Selective nicotinic  agonist

        Nicotine (small dose)

        Lobelin

        Dimethylphenyl piperazinium iodide (DMPP)

        Tetramethyl ammonium (TMA)

        Varenicline

 

Non-selective Agonists

        Acetylcholine

        Carbachol

        Pilocarpine

        Anticholinesterases

        MCN 343-A

Anticholinergic Drugs (Muscarinic receptor antagonists, Parasympatholytic, Atropinic)

1. Natural alkaloids

Atropine, Hyoscine (Scopolamine).

 

2. Semisynthetic derivatives

Homatropine, Atropine methonitrate, Hyoscine butyl bromide, Ipratropium bromide, Tiotropium bromide.

 

3. Synthetic compounds

(a) Mydriatics: Cyclopentolate, Tropicamide

 

(b) Antisecretory-antispasmodics:

        (i) Quaternary compounds: Propantheline, Oxyphenonium, Clidinium, Pipenzolate , methylbromide, Isopropamide, Glycopyrrolate.

        (ii) Tertiary amines: Dicyclomine, Valethamate, Pirenzepine.

 

(c) Vasicoselective: Oxybutynin, Flavoxate, Tolterodine.

 

(d) Antiparkinsonian: Trihexyphenidyl (Benzhexol), Procyclidine, Biperiden.

Cholinergic Drugs (Cholinomimetic, Parasympathomimetic)

CHOLINERGIC AGONISTS

        1. Choline esters: Acetylcholine, Methacholine,Carbachol, Bethanechol

        2. Alkaloids: Muscarine, Pilocarpine, Arecoline

 

ANTICHOLINESTERASES

        1. Reversible

               a. Carbamates: Physostigmine (Eserine), Neostigmine, Pyridostigmine, Edrophonium, Rivastigmine, Donepezil, Galantamine

               b. Acridine: Tacrine

        2. Irreversible

               a. Organophosphates: Dyflos (DFP), Echothiophate, Malathione, Diazinon, Tabun, Sarin, Soman

               b. Carbamates: Carbaryl, Propoxur, Cerebroselective; used for Alzheimer’s disease, Insecticides, Nerve gases for chemical warfare

 

classification of drugs

 

High Yield Classification of Drugs
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