List of the most common tumors, causes, most common pathogens, most common disorders, etc.

Most Common Primary Tumor arising from the bone in adultsOsteosarcoma
Most Common Adrenal Medullary TumorPheochromocytoma: 5 P’s: ↑ Pressure; Pain (Headache); Perspiration; Palpitations; Pallor/Diaphoresis
Most Common Adrenal Medullary Tumor Children Neuroblastoma
Most Common Agent of severe viral encephalitisHerpes simplex
Most Common Aggressive lung tumorSmall cell or oat cell
Most Common Associated with gallstonesAdenocarcinoma
Most Common Atrial Septal DefectsOstium Secundum Type
Most Common Bacterial Meningitis of newbornsE. coli / Group B strep
Most Common Bacterial Meningitis of adultsStrep pneumonia & in young adults = Neisseria meningitides
Most Common Bacterial Meningitis of elderlyNeisseria meningitidis
Most Common Benign epithelial tumor of the oral mucosaPapilloma
Most Common Benign fallopian tube tumorAdenomatoid
Most Common Benign ovarian tumorMature(Native) Teratoma = benign dermatoid
Most Common Benign tumor of soft tissueLipoma
Most Common Benign tumor of the breast<25yoaFibroadenoma
Most Common Benign tumor of the liverHemangioma
Most Common Benign tumor of the vulvaHidroadenoma
Most Common Benign uterine tumorLeiomyoma: estrogen sinsitive: changes size during pregnancy & menopause
Most Common Bone TumorsMetasteses from Breast & Prostate
Most Common Brain Tumor – ChildMedulloblastoma (cerebellum)
Most Common Brain Tumor –AdultAstrocytoma (including Glioblastoma Multiforme) then: mets, meningioma, Schwannoma
Most Common Breast CarcinomaInvasive Duct Carcinoma
Most Common Breast MassFibrocystic Change: premenopausic women (Carcinoma is the most common in post-menopausal women)
Most Common Bug in Acute EndocarditisStaph aureus
Most Common Bug in EpiglottitisHib
Most Common Bug in GI TractBacteroides (2nd – E. coli)
Most Common Bug in IV drug user bacteremia / pneumoniaStaph aureus
Most Common Bug in Otitis Media & Sinusitis in KidsStrep. Pneumoniae
Most Common Bug in PIDN. Gonnorrhoeae
Most Common Bug in Subacute EndocarditisStrep Viridans
Most Common Bug in debilitated,hospitalized pneumonia ptKlebsiella
Most Common CA of urinary collecting systemTransitional cell CA (assoc. w/ benzidine; βnaphthylamine; analine dyes; long term txt w/ cyclophosphamide)
Most Common Cardiac 1ry Tumor – AdultsMyxoma: “Ball Valve”
Most Common Cardiac 1ry Tumor – ChildRhabdomyoma – associated w/ Tuberous sclerosis
Most Common Cardiac Tumor – AdultsMetasteses
Most Common CardiomyopathyDilated (Congestive) Cardiomyopathy: Alcohol, BeriBeri, Cocaine use, Coxsackie B, Doxorubicin; Systolic Dysfunction
Most Common Cause of Addison’sAutoimmune (2nd – – infection)
Most Common Cause of Bacterial DiarrheaCampylobacter jejuni
Most Common Cause of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia21-Hydroxylase Deficiency: NaCl lost & Hypotension (then, 11- NaCl retention & HTN)
Most Common Cause of Congenital MalformationFetal Alcohol Syndrome
Most Common Cause of CushingsExogenous Steroid Therapy (then, 1ry ACTH, Adrenal Adenoma, Ectopic ACTH)
Most Common Cause of Death b/t 24-44 yoaAIDS
Most Common Cause of Death in Alzheimer ptsPneumonia
Most Common Cause of Death in DiabeticsMI
Most Common Cause of Death in SLE pts.Lupus Nephropathy Type IV (Diffuse Proliferative) = Renal Disease
Most Common Cause of Death in prematureNRDS = hyaline membrane disease
Most Common Cause of Death w/ SLERenal failure
Most Common Cause of DementiaMost common – Alzheimer’s


2nd common – Multi-Infarct Dementia

Most Common Cause of DwarfismAchondroplasia
Most Common Cause of Food poisoningStaph aureus
Most Common Cause of GlomerulonephritisIgA Nephropathy = Berger’s Disease
Most Common Cause of HematosalpyngaEctopic pregnancy
Most Common Cause of HypoparathyroidismThroidectomy
Most Common Cause of HypothyroidismCorrective surgery I31 treatment
Most Common Cause of Infection in Burn PtsPseudomonas
Most Common Cause of Kidney infectionsE. coli
Most Common Cause of Liver disease in USAlcohol consumption
Most Common Cause of Lobar PneumoniaStrep. Pneumoniae
Most Common Cause of Malignancy in childrenAcute leukemia
Most Common Cause of Mental retardationDown’s
Most Common Cause of Mental retardation(2nd most common)Fragile X
Most Common Cause of NaCl loss and Hypotension21 hydroxylase deficiency
Most Common Cause of Non-Ghonococcal UrethritisChlamydia trichomonas
Most Common Cause of Osteomyelitis in IV Drug UsersPseudomonas
Most Common Cause of PIDN. ghonorrhea
Most Common Cause of Pneumonia in Cystic FibrosisPseudomonas
Most Common Cause of Portal cirrhosisAlcohol
Most Common Cause of Preventable BlindnessChlamydia (serotypes A,B,Ba,C)
Most Common Cause of Pulmonary HTNCOPD
Most Common Cause of SIADHSmall Cell Carcinoma of the Lung
Most Common Cause of Secondary



Renal disease
Most Common Cause of Viral PneumoniaRSV – infants


Parainfluenza – kids

Influenza virus – adults

Adeno virus – military recruits

Most Common Cause of a Solitary Brain AbscessA. Israelli
Most Common Cause of breast lumpsCA of the breast
Most Common Cause of chronic endometriosisTB
Most Common Cause of secondary HTNRenal Disease
Most Common Causes of Pernicious AnemiaChronic atropic gastritis = no production of intrinsic factor
Most Common Causes of UT obstruction in manBP Hyperplasia
Most Common Chromosomal DisorderDown’s
Most Common Common Tumor of Appendix

Cardinoid Tumor : flushing, diarrhea, bronchospasm, R heart valvular lesions

Txt: Methysergide(5HT antagonis)

Most Common Complication of COPDPulmonary infections
Most Common Congeital Cardiac AnomalyVSD (membranous>muscular)
Most Common Congenital Early CyanosisTetralogy of Fallot =right to left shunt
Most Common Congenital GIT AnomalyMeckel’s Diverticulum: persistence of vitelline duct/yolk sac stalk
Most Common Coronary Artery ThrombosisLAD artery: MI
Most Common Demyelinating DiseaseMultiple Sclerosis: (Charcot Triad = nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech)


Periventricular plaques w/ ↓ Oligodenrocytes

↑ IgG in CSF, Optic Neuritis, MLF Syndorme = Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia, bladder incontinence

Most Common Dental TumorOdontoma
Most Common Dietary DeficiencyIron
Most Common Disease of the BreastFibrocystic disease
Most Common Disseminated Opportunistic Infection in AIDSCMV (Pneumocystis carinii is most common overall)
Most Common Esophageal CancerCCA
Most Common Fallopian Tube MalignancyAdenoCA
Most Common Fatal Genetic Defect in CaucasiansCystic Fibrosis (chromosome 7q)
Most Common Female TumorLeimyoma
Most Common Form of AmyloidosisImmunologic (Bence Jones protein in multiple myeloma is also called the Amyloid Light Chain)
Most Common Form of TularemiaUlceroglandular
Most Common Germ Cell Tumor of TestesSeminoma (analogous to dysgerminoma of ovaries)
Most Common Gynecological FindingEndometrial CA
Most Common Gynecological MalignancyEndometrial Carcinoma
Most Common Heart MurmurMitral Valve Prolapse
Most Common Heart Valve in Bacterial EndocarditisMitral
Most Common Heart Valve in Bacterial Endocarditis in IV drug usersTricuspid
Most Common Heart Valve involved in Rheumatic FeverMitral then Aortic
Most Common Hereditary Bleeding DisorderVon Willebrand’s Disease
Most Common Hormone secreted in Pituitary AdenomaProlactin
Most Common ImmunodeficiencyIgA Deficiency
Most Common Inherited disease of the KidneyAdult polycystic kidney disease: associated w/ polycystic liver, Berry aneurysms, Mitral prolapse APD1 – chromosome 16
Most Common Intelligence TestStanford Binet (ages 6 & under)


WIPSI (ages 4-6)

WISK-R (for ages 6-17)

WAIS-R (for > 17 yoa)

Most Common Intracranial tumor in adultsGlioblastoma mulitforme
Most Common Islet TumorInsulinoma = β cell tumor
Most Common Liver 1ry TumorHepatoma
Most Common Liver DiseaseAlcoholic Liver Disease
Most Common Location of Adenocarcinoma


of the Pancreas

Head (99%)
Most Common Location of Adult Brain



Above Tentorium
Most Common Location of Childhood Brain TumorsBelow Tentorium
Most Common Lung Tumor, malignant or benignMalignant
Most Common Lung Tumor, primary or secondarySecondary
Most Common Lysosomal Storage DiseaseGaucher’s
Most Common Malignancy VulvaSquamous cell CA
Most Common Malignancy in WomenLung (2nd breast)
Most Common Malignancy of the LarynxGlottic CA (squamous cell)
Most Common Malignancy of the Small



Most Common Malignant Eye Tumor in KidsRetinoblastoma
Most Common Malignant Tumor of the LiverHepatocellular CA
Most Common Mental Problem in MalesSpecific phobia
Most Common Metabolite seen w/ PheochromocytomaVMA: vanillylmandelic acid (NE metabolite)
Most Common Motor Neuron DiseaseALS
Most Common Muscular DystrophyDuchenne’s: Dystrophin deletion. Presents <5yoa weakness at pelvic girdles w/ upward progression
Most Common Nasal TumorSquamous cell CA
Most Common Neoplasm of the WestAdeno CA of the rectum and/or colon
Most Common Neoplasm – ChildLeukemia
Most Common Neoplasm – Child (2nd most common)Medulloblastoma of brain (cerebellum)
Most Common Neoplastic PolypTubular adenoma
Most Common Nephrotic Syndrome in AdultsMembranous Glomerulonephritis
Most Common Nephrotic Syndrome in ChildrenMinimal Change (Lipoid Nephrosis) Disease (responds well to steroid txt)
Most Common Non Hodgkin’s LymphomaFollicular small clear cell
Most Common Number of Deaths per year inLung CA
Most Common Opportunistic infection in AIDSPCP
Most Common Ovarian MalignancySerous Cystadenocarcinoma
Most Common Ovarian TumorHamartoma
Most Common Pancreatic TumorAdeno (usually in the head)
Most Common ParaphiliaPedophilia
Most Common Patient with ALL / CLL / AML / CMLALL – Child / CLL – Adult over 60 / AML – Adult over 60 / CML – Adult 35-50
Most Common Patient with Goodpasture’sYoung male
Most Common Patient with Reiter’sMale
Most Common Pituitary TumorProlactinoma (2nd – Somatotropic “Acidophilic” Adenoma)
Most Common Place for Peptic Ulcer DiseaseLesser curvuture in antrum – associated w/ blood group O
Most Common Place for Primary Squamous Cell CA of esophagusMid 1/3
Most Common PneumoniaStrep. Pneumoniae
Most Common Primary Benign Salivary TumorPleomorphic Adenoma (Mixed) – 90% localized to the parotid
Most Common Primary HyperparathyroidismAdenomas (followed by: hyperplasia, then carcinoma)
Most Common Primary Malignancy of BoneOsteosarcoma
Most Common Primary Malignancy of Small IntestineLymphoma
Most Common Pt. with Hodgkin’sYoung Male (except Nodular Sclerosis type – Female)
Most Common Pt. with Minimal Change DiseaseYoung Child
Most Common Renal MalignancyRenal cell CA
Most Common Renal Malignancy of Early



Wilm’s tumor (neohroblastoma) – chromosome 11p
Most Common Salivary TumorPleomorphic adenoma
Most Common Secondary HyperparathyroidismHypocalcemia of Chronic Renal Failure
Most Common Severe ShigellaDysenteriae
Most Common Sexually Transmitted DiseaseChlamydia (sero types D-K)
Most Common Shigella TypeS. Sonnei
Most Common Site of DiverticulaSigmoid Colon
Most Common Site of Embolic OcclusionMiddle cerebral aa: contralateral paralysis; aphasias; motor & sensory loss
Most Common Site of MetastasisRegional Lymph Nodes
Most Common Site of Metastasis (2nd most common)Liver
Most Common Sites of AtherosclerosisAbdominal aorta > coronary > popliteal > carotid
Most Common Skin CA of Fair Skinned PeopleMalignant melanoma
Most Common Skin CancerBasal Cell Carcinoma
Most Common Skin tumorBasal cell CA
Most Common Small Intestine Congenital AnomalyMeckel’s diverticulum
Most Common Stomach CancerAdeno – associated w/ blood group A
Most Common Testicular TumorSeminoma = malignant painless testes growth
Most Common Thyroid AnomalySeminoma = malignant painless testes growth
Most Common Thyroid AnomalyThryoglossal duct cyst
Most Common Thyroid CAPapillary CA
Most Common Tracheoesophageal FistulaLower esophagus joins trachea / upper esophagus – blind pouch – polyhydramnios association
Most Common Tumor in men <20Germ cell tumor
Most Common Tumor of InfancyBenign vascular tumor = port wine stain = Hemangioma
Most Common Tumor of the Stomach >50 years of ageCA of stomach (adeno CA)
Most Common Type of Hodgkin’sMixed Cellularity (versus: lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion, nodular sclerosis)
Most Common Type of Non-Hodgkin’sFollicular, small cleaved
Most Common Type of Portal CirrhosisMicronodular
Most Common Type of Soft Tissue Tumor of ChildhoodRhabdomyosarcoma
Most Common UrethritisN. ghonorrhea
Most Common Vasculitis (of medium & small arteries)Temporal Arteritis (branch of Carotid Artery)
Most Common Viral EncephalitisHSV
Most Common Warm AntibodyMost common form of immune hemolytic anemia


IgG auto antibodies to RBC

See spherocytosis; (+) Coombs’ test; complication to CLL

Most Common Worm Infection in USPinworm (2nd – Ascaris)
Most Common Worst Prognosis in Thyroid CaseFollicular CA

Caption Image:

common tumors