anatomy mnemonics

Simple and fun anatomy mnemonics that will make anatomy easier to remember.

Carpal Bones “She Looks Too Pretty; Try To Catch Her”









Tarsal Bones “Tiger Cubs Need MILC”




-Medial cuneiform

-Intermediate cuneiform

-Lateral cuneiform


Axillary Artery Branches “SomeTimes Life Seems A Pain”

-Superior thoracic artery

-Thoracoacromial artery

-Lateral thoracic artery


-Anterior circumflex humeral artery

-Posterior circumflex humeral artery

Thoracoacromial Artery Branches “ABCD”


-Breast (pectoral)



Contents of Cubital Fossa (medial to lateral) “MBBR”

-Median nerve

-termination of Brachial artery and beginning of radial and ulnar arteries

-Biceps tendon

-Radial nerve

Muscles involved in Elbow flexion “3 B’s Bend the elbow”




Elbow: which side has common flexor origin “FM (as in FM radio)”


Rotator cuff muscles “SITS”



-Teres minor


Radial Nerve: Muscle innervated “Try A Big Chocolate Chip Sundae, Double Dip Cherries And Peanuts Preferrably Included”




-ext. Carpi radialis longus

-ext. Carpi radialis brevis


-ext. Digitorum

-ext. Digiti minimi

-ext. Carpi ulnaris

-Abductor poll. longus

-ext. Poll. brevis

-ext. Poll. longus

-ext. Indicis

Anterior Forearm muscles superficial group:

“Pimps F*ck Prostitutes For Fun”

-Pronator teres

-Flexor carpi radialis

-Palmaris longus

-Flexor carpi ulnaris

-Flexor digitorum superficialis

deep group:

“Fastly F*ck Prostitutes”

-Flexor digitorum profundus

-Flexor pollicis longus

-Pronator quadratus

Hand Interossei Muscles Action “PAD DAB”

-Palmar interossei….ADduct

-Dorsal interossei….ABduct

Median Nerve: Hand muscles innervated ” the LOAF muscles”

-Lumbricals 1 and 2

-Opponens pollicis

-Abductor pollicis brevis

-Flexor pollicis brevis

Hand: Nerve Lesions “DR CUMA”

-Drop….Radial nerve

-Claw….Ulnar nerve

-Medain nerve….Ape hand

Femoral Artery Deep Branches “Put My Leg Down, Please”

-Profundus femoris

-Medial circumflex femoral artery

-Lateral circumflex femoral artey

-Descending genicular artery

-Perforating artery

Femoral Traingle contents (lateral to medial) “NAVEL”

-Nerve: femoral nerve (directly behind the sheath)

-Artery: femoral artery (within the sheath)

-Vein: femoral vein (within the sheath)

-Empty space

-Lymphatics: with deep inguinal node

Rib Costal Groove “VAN”: (from superior to inferior)




Inferior Venacava tributaries “I LIke To Rise So High”






-Hepatic vein

Lumbar Plexus “I twice Get Laid On Fridays”

-Iliohypogastric [L1]

-Ilioinguinal [L1]

-Genitofemoral [L2, L3]

-Lateral femoral cutaneous [L2, L3]

-Obturator [L2, L3, L4]

-Femoral [L2, L3, L4]

Scalp Layers “SCALP”


-Connective tissue


-Loose areoolar tissue


Scalp Nerve supply “GLASS”

-Greater occipital/ Greater auricular

-Lesser occipital




Carotid sheath contents “I See 10 CC’s in the IV”

-I See (I.C.)= Internal Carotid

-10=CN 10 (vagus nerve)

-CC= Common Carotid artery

-IV= Internal Jugular vein

Cavernous Sinus Contents “O TOM CAt”

-Oculomotor nerve

-Trochlear nerve

-Opthalmic branch of trigeminal nerve

-Maxillary branch of trigeminal nerve

-Carotid artery (Internal)

-Abducens nerve

External Carotid Artery Branches “Sister Lucis Face Powder Often Attracts Medical Students”

-Superior thyroid



-Posterior auricular


-Ascending pharyngeal


-Superficial temporal

Subcalvian Artery Branches “VIT C,D”


-Internal Thoracic



-Dorsal scapular

Branches of Facial Nerve “Ten Zulus Bought My Cat”






Extraocular muscles cranial nerve innervation “LR6 SO4 Rest3”

-Lateral Rectus….6th

-Superior Oblique….4th

-Rest all….3rd

Spleen: Dimensions, weight, surface anatomy “1,3,5,7,9,11”

Spleen dimension : 1 inch thick * 3 inch wide * 5 inch long

Weight : 7 ounces

It underlies ribs 9 through 11

Retroperitoneal structures list “SAD PUCKER”

-Suprarenal glands

-Aorta and IVC

-Duodenum (half)



-Colon (ascending and descending)




Scrotum Layers “Some Damn Englishman Called It The Testis”



-External spermatic fascia


-Internal spermatic fascia

-Tunica vaginalis


Sperm pathway through male reproductive tract “SEVEN UP”

-Semniferous tubules


-Vas deferens

-Ejaculatory duct




Spermatic cord contents “Piles Don’t Contribute To A Good Sex Life”

-Pampiniform plexus

-Ductus deferens

-Cremasteric artery

-Testicular artery

-Artery of the ductus deferens

-Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve

-Sympathetic nerve fibers

-Lymphatic fibers

Deep Tendon Reflex: Root supply ” 1,2 buckle my shoe… 3,4 kick the door…5,6 pick-up sticks…7,8 shut the gate”

-S1,2=ankle jerk

-L3,4=knee jerk

-C5,6=biceps and brachioradialis


Bronchi: which one is more vertical “Inhale a bite, goes down the right”:

Inhaled objects more likely to lodge in right bronchus, since it is the one that is more vertical.

Hip posterior dislocation: most likely arrangement for one “Hitting the brake pedal before the accident”:

You are sitting, so hip is flexed, and adducted and medially rotated so can move your foot away from the gas pedal over to the brake pedal.

Note: car accidents are most likely cause of posterior dislocation because in this position.

Buttock quadrant safest for needle insertion “Shut up and butt out”:

The Upper Outer quadrant of the Buttock safely avoids hitting sciatic nerve.

Radial nerve: muscles supplied (simplified) “BEST muscles”:





Rib costal groove: order of intercostal blood vessels and nerve VAN:

From superior to inferior:




Brachial plexus subunits “Randy Travis Drinks Cold Beer”:






Alternatively: “Read The Damn Cadaver Book!”

Alternatively: “Real Texans Drink Coors Beer”.

Diaphragm innervation “3, 4, 5 keeps the diaphragm alive”:

Diaphragm innervation is cervical roots 3, 4, and 5.

Serratus anterior: innervation and action “C5-6-7 raise your wings up to heaven”:

C567 injury causes inability to raise arm past 90 degrees up to heaven, and results in a winging of the scapula.

� Long thoracic nerve roots (567) innervate Serratus anterior.

Thoracic duct: relation to azygous vein and esophagus “The duck between 2 gooses”:

Thoracic duct (duck) is between 2 gooses, azygous and esophagus.

Bicipital groove: attachments of muscles near it “The lady between two majors”:

Teres major attaches to medial lip of groove.

Pectoralis major to lateral lip of groove.

Latissimus (Lady) is on floor of groove, between the 2 majors.

Aortic arch: major branch order “Know your ABC’S”:

Aortic arch gives rise to:

Brachiocephalic trunk

left Common Carotid

left Subclavian

� Beware though trick question of ‘What is first branch of aorta?’ Technically, it’s the coronary arteries.

Navicular contacts 3 of 5 cuneiform bones “Navicular is like the Navigator logo”:

There are 3 things coming off each.

� See diagram.

Therefore, cuboid has to contact 2 of the 5.

Trigeminal nerve: where branches exit skull “Standing Room Only”:

Superior orbital fissure is V1

foramen Rotundum is V2

foramen Ovale is V3

Tonsils: The three types “PPL (people) have tonsils”:




Ureter to ovarian/testicular artery relation “Water under the bridge”:

The ureters (which carry water), are posterior to the ovarian/testicular artery.

� Clinically important, since a common surgical error is to cut ureter instead of ovarian artery when removing uterus.

Oblique muscles: direction of externals vs. internals “Hands in your pockets”:

When put hands in your pockets, fingers now lie on top of external obliques and fingers point their direction of fibers: down and towards midline.

� Note: “oblique” tells that must be going at an angle.

� Internal obliques are at right angles to external.

Duodenum: lengths of parts “Counting 1 to 4 but staggered”:

1st part: 2 inches

2nd part: 3 inches

3rd part: 4 inches

4th part: 1 inch

Murphy’s point organ [for Irish] “Murphy was an Irishman (and Murphy is a classic Irish surname), and Ireland=green”:

Green organ in body is gallbladder, so Murphy’s point is the gall bladder.

Anteflexed vs. anteverted: what bodypart each describes “Anteflexed and Anteverted both bend toward Anterior”.

� The “V” words go together: Verted is for the cerVix (therefore flexed must be uterus).

Foramen spinosum: location on base of skull Foramen spinosum is adjacent to the spine of sphenoid.
Pterygoid muscles: function of lateral vs. medial “Look at how your jaw ends up when saying first syllable of ‘Lateral’ or ‘Medial’ “:

“La”: your jaw is now open, so Lateral opens mouth.

“Me”: your jaw is still closed, so medial closes the mandible.

Face muscles: large muscle groups’ cranial innervation Mandibular nerve: Mastication.

Facial nerve: Facial expression.

Meckel’s diverticulum details 2 inches long.

2 feet from end of ileum.

2 times more common in men.

2% occurrence in population.

2 types of tissues may be present.

� Note: “di-” means “two”, so diverticulum is the thing with all the twos.

Leino- definition “Leino” rhymes with “spleen-o”:

Therefore leino- means something to do with the spleen.

Kidney hilums at transpyloric plane [L1] L-1 goes through hilum of only 1 kidney, and it’s the Left one.
Lung lobe numbers: right vs. left

Tricuspid heart valve and tri-lobed lung both on the right side.

Bicuspid and bi-lobed lung both on the left side.

Vertebrae: recognizing a thoracic from lumbar Examine vertebral body shape:

Thoracic is heart-shaped body since your heart is in your thorax.

Lumbar is kidney-bean shaped since kidneys are in lumbar area.

Median nerve: recognizing it in an opened axilla The Median nerve is the Middle of a giant capital “M” formed by the musculocutaneous and ulnar nerves.
Carpal bone having the hook The Hamate has the Hook.
Flexor digitorum muscles: how they insert onto fingers A little rhyme:

Superficialis Splits in two,

To Permit Profundus Passing through.

Ulnar nerve to ulnar artery and radial nerve to radial artery relations Think “peripheral nerves”:

The ulnar nerve is “ulnar” to the ulnar artery.

Radial nerve is “radial” to the radial artery.

Dermatome C6 location Stick arm out like crucifixion stance. Curl your thumb and forefinger into an “OK” symbol while keeping your other fingers straight.

Your hand should now look like a 6 shape.

So C6 dermatome is your thumb and top of arm (reason for crucifix stance).

� See diagram.

Brachioradialis: function, innervation, one relation, one attachment BrachioRadialis:

Function: It’s the Beer Raising muscle, flexes elbow, strongest when wrist is oriented like holding a beer.

Innervation: Breaks Rule: it’s a flexor muscle, But Radial. (Radial nerve usually is for extensors: Recall BEST rule: B was for brachioradialis).

Important relation: Behind it is the Radial nerve in the cubital fossa.

Attachment: Attaches to Bottom of Radius.

Diaphram aperatures: spinal levels “Come Enter the Abdomen:

Vena Cava [8]

Esophagus [10]

Aorta [12]

Extensor expansion location in the hand The eXtensor eXpansion is on the proXimal phalynX.
Elbow: muscles that flex it Three B’s Bend the elBow:




Thyroid: isthmus location “Rings 2,3,4 make the isthmus floor”:

Isthmus overlies tracheal rings 2,3,4

Thoracic duct: which half of upper body does it drain Know drains all of lower body, but was it the right or the left part of the upper body?

Answer: it’s Lymph from the Left of the upper body.

Soleus vs. gastrocnemius muscle function “Stand on your Soles. Explosive gas”:

You stand on soles of your shoes, so Soleus is for posture.

Gasoline is explosive, so Gastrocnemius is for explosive movement.

Inversion vs. eversion muscles in leg Second letter rule for inversion/eversion:

Eversion muscles:

pErineus longus

pErineus brevis

pErineus terius

� Inversion muscles:

tIbialis anterior

tIbialis posterior

Liver inferior markings showing right/left lobe vs. vascular divisions There’s a Hepatic “H” on inferior of liver. One vertical stick of the H is the dividing line for anatomical right/left lobe and the other vertical stick is the divider for vascular halves. Stick that divides the liver into vascular halves is the one with vena cava impression (since vena cava carries blood, it’s fortunate that it’s the divider for blood halves).
Pleura surface markings “All the even ribs, in order: 2,4,6,8,10,12 show its route”:

Rib2: sharp angle inferiorly

Rib4: the left pleura does a lateral shift to accommodate heart

Rib6: both diverge laterally

Rib8: midclavicular line

Rib10: midaxillary line

Rib12: the back

� See diagram.

Palmaris longus: location, relative to wrist nerves “The Palmaris between two Palmars”:

Palmaris longus is between the Palmar cutaneous branch of Ulnar nerve and Palmar cutaneous branch of Median nerve.

Carpal tunnel syndrome causes MEDIAN TRAP:


Edema premenstrually






Rheumatoid arthritis



� Mnemonic fits nicely since median nerve is trapped.

Pectoral nerves: path of lateral vs. medial “Lateral Less, Medial More”:

Lateral pectoral nerve only goes through Pectoralis major, but

Medial pectoral nerve goes though both Pectoralis major and minor.

Superior thyroid artery branches “May I Softly Squeeze Charlie’s Girl?”:



Superior laryngeal




Abdominal muscles “Spare TIRE around their abdomen”:

Transversus abdominis

Internal abdominal oblique

Rectus abdominis

External abdominal oblique

Perineal vs. peroneal Perineal is in between the legs.

Peroneal is on the leg.

Cranial bones SEFPOT:







� The 6 just reminds that there’s 6 of them to remember.

L4 landmark: 2 items “B4U” [before you]:

Bifurcation of aorta



Bowel components “Dow Jones Industrial Average Closing Stock Report”:

� From proximal to distal:








� Alternatively: to include the cecum, “Dow Jones Industrial Climbing Average Closing Stock Report”.

Lung lobes: segments of right middle lobe “ML=ML”:

Segments of Middle Lobe are Medial & Lateral.

Nasal cavity components “Never Call Me Needle Nose!”:

Nares [external]



Nares [internal]


� Note mnemonic sentence is nasally-related.

Plantarflexion vs. dorsiflexion Plantar flexion occurs when you squish a Plant with your foot.
Adductor magnus innervation “AM SO!”:

Adductor Magnus innervated by Sciatic and Obturator.

Lumbar plexus roots “2 from 1, 2 from 2, 2 from 3”:

2 nerves from 1 root: Ilioinguinal (L1), Iliohypogastric (L1).

2 nerves from 2 roots: Genitofemoral (L1,L2), Lateral Femoral (L2,L3).

2 nerves from 3 roots: Obturator (L2,L3,L4), Femoral (L2,L3,L4).

Female pelvic organs’ blood supply “3 organs, each get 2 blood supplies”:

Uterus: uterine, vaginal.

Rectum: middle rectal, inferior rectal [inferior rectal is the end of pudendal].

Bladder: superior vesical, inferior vesical.

Cervical plexus: arrangement of the important nerves


� 4 compass points: clockwise from north on the right side of neck:

Great auricular

Lesser occipital

Accessory nerve pops out between L and S


Transverse cervical

� See diagram.

Liver: side with ligamentum venosum/ caudate lobe vs. side with quadrate lobe/ ligamentum teres

“VC goes with VC”:

The Venosum and Caudate is on same side as Vena Cava [posterior]. Therefore, quadrate and teres must be on anterior by default.

� See inferior-view diagram.

Joints in the midline


In medial line, below Second Cervical, joints are Secondary Cartilaginous and usually have a diSC.

� Notes: secondary cartilaginous is also known as symphysis. The one that doesn’t have a disc is xiphi-sternal.

Anterior forearm muscles: superficial group

There are five, like five digits of your hand.

Place your thumb into your palm, then lay that hand palm down on your other arm, as shown in diagram.

Your 4 fingers now show distribution: spells PFPF [pass/fail, pass/fail]:

Pronator teres

Flexor carpi radialis

Palmaris longus

Flexor carpi ulnaris

Your thumb below your 4 fingers shows the muscle which is deep to the other four: Flexor digitorum superficialis.

Median and ulnar nerves: common features

Each supply 1/2 of flexor digitorum profundus.

Each supplies 2 lumbricals.

Each has a palmar cutaneous nerve that pops off prematurely.

Each supplies an eminence group of muscles [ulnar: hypothenar. median: thenar].

Each enters forearm through two heads [ulnar: heads of flexor carpi ulnaris. median: heads of pronator teres].

Each has no branches in upper arm.

Each makes two fingers claw when cut at wrist.

Each supplies a palmaris [median: palmaris longus. ulnar: palmaris brevis].

Thyroids: relative sizes

Thyroid looks like a bra (see picture).

Breasts are bigger in women, so thyroid bigger in women.

Pregnant women have biggest breasts of all, so they have the biggest thyroids.

Saphenous veins: path of great vs. small at malleolus

“MAGdelaine has varicose veins” [The saphenous veins are important for varicose veins]:

Medial maleolus, Anterior to maleolus, and Great saphenous go together.

Then the opposites of these go together: Small saphenous is posterior to the lateral maleolus.

Menisci attachments in knee

“Each meniscus has something attached to it”:

The medial meniscus has the medial collateral ligament.

The lateral meniscus is attached to the popliteal muscle.

Interossei muscles: actions of dorsal vs. palmar in hand

“PAd and DAb”:

The Palmar Adduct and the Dorsal Abduct.

� Use your hand to dab with a pad.

V3 innervated muscles (branchial arch 1 derivatives)

“M.D. My TV”:

Mastication [masseter, temporalis, pterygoids]

Digastric [anterior belly]


tensor Tympani

tensor Veli palatini

CN VII innervated muscles (branchial arch 2 derivatives)

“Imagine someone making the facial expression to say ‘PSS…’ “:

Facial expression muscles

Posterior belly of digastric



Thoracic cage: relations to the important venous structures

Behind the sternoclavicular joints: the brachiocephalic veins begin.

Behind the 1st costal cartilage on the right the superior vena cava begins.

Behind the 2nd costal cartilage on the right the azygos vein ends.

Behind the 3rd costal cartilage on the right the superior vena cava ends.

Extrinsic muscles of tongue [for pro soccer fans]

“Paris St. Germain’s Hour”:





� PSG is a French soccer team (foreign), hence extrinsic comes to mind.

Autonomics to the gut

“The PARAsympathetics follow a rule of TWO” [pair = two]:

� The vagus does the top, the sacral splanchnics the outflow tract.

“The sympathetics follow a rule of threes”:

� Greater, lesser, least splanchnic nerves go to the celiac,superior and inferior mesenteric ganglion.

Descending abdominal aorta: seven divisions

“Sometimes Intestines Get Really Stretched Causing Leakage”:

Suprarenals [paired]

Inferior mesenteric

Gonadal [paired]

Renals [paired]

Superior mesenteric


Lumbar [paired]

Vagus nerve: path into thorax “I Left my Aunt in Vegas”:

Left Vagus nerve goes Anterior descending into the thorax.

Brachial plexus: branches of posterior cord


Subscapular [upper and lower]




Internal jugular vein: tributaries

“Medical Schools Let Confident People In”:

� From inferior to superior:

Middle thyroid

Superior thyroid


Common facial


Inferior petrosal sinus

Retroperitoneal structures list


Suprarenal glands

Aorta & IVC

Duodenum (half)



Colon (ascending & descending)


Esophagus (anterior & left covered)


Portal-systemic anastomoses: main 2 places that retroperitoneals connect into systemic

RetroPeritoneals hook up with Renal and Paravertebral veins.

Facial bones

“Virgil Can Not Make My Pet Zebra Laugh!”:









Carpum and tarsum


(Artum) Superior Carpum

(Artum) Inferior Tarsum

Extraocular muscles cranial nerve innervation

“LR6SO4 rest 3”:

Lateral Rectus is 6th

Superior Oblique is 4th

rest are all 3rd cranial nerve

Brachial artery: recurrent and collateral branches

“I Am Pretty Sexy”

Inferior ulnar collateral artery goes with Anterior ulnar recurrent artery.

Posterior ulnar recurrent artery goes with Superior ulnar collateral artery.

� Alternatively: “I Am Pretty Smart”.

Orbit: bones of medial wall

“My Little Eye Sits in the orbit”:

Maxilla (frontal process)



Sphenoid (body)

Erector spinae muscles

“I Love Sex”:

� From lateral to medial:




� Alternatively: “I Long for Spinach”

� “Sex” helps you think of “Erector”, but “Long” and “Spinach” help you remember the muscles’ names.

Obturator canal: relations of structures

“Who’s flying in the top of Obturator canal? Obviously Not A Vein!”:





Lacrimal nerve course

“Lacrimal’s story of 8 L’s”:

Lacrimal nerve runs on Lateral wall of orbit above Lateral rectus, then Lets communicating branch join in, then supplies Lacrimal gland, then Leaves it and supplies Lateral upper eye Lid!

Internal iliac artery: posterior branch


Posterior branch


Lateral sacral

Superior gluteal

Facial nerve branches

“Two Zombies Buggered My Cat”:

� From superior to inferior:

Temporal branch

Zygomatic branch

Buccal branch

Mandibular branch

Cervical branch

� Alternatively: “Two Zulus Bit My Cat”.

� Alternatively: “Two Zebras Bit My Coccyx”.

� Alternatively: “To Zanzibar By Motor Car”.

� Alternatively: “Tall Zulus Bear Many Children”

� Alternatively: “Tell Ziggy Bob Marley Called”.

Hip: lateral rotators

“Play Golf Or Go On Quaaludes”:

� From top to bottom:


Gemellus superior

Obturator internus

Gemellus inferior

Obturator externus

Quadratus femoris

� Alternatively: “P-GO-GO-Q”.

Cartilage derivatives of 1st pharyngeal arch (mandibular)

“I’M A Super Sexy Guy” (or Girl):



Anterior ligament of malleus

Spine of sphenoid

Sphenomandibular ligament

Genial tubercle of mandible

Facial nerve: branches after Stylomastoid foramen

“Ten Zulus Buggered My Cat (Painfully)”:

� From superior to inferior:

Temporal branch

Zygomatic branch

Buccal branch

Mandibular branch

Cervical branch

(Posterior auricular nerve)

� Alternatively: “PAssing Through Zanzibar By Motor Car” (PA for Posterior Auricular).

Sperm pathway through male reproductive tract


� Sperm duct system progression, from smallest to largest:

ST: Seminiferous Tubules

RT: Rete Testes

DE: Ductus Efferentes

EP: Epididymis

VD: Vas Deferens

Maxillary artery branches

“DAM I AM Piss Drunk But Stupid Drunk I Prefer, Must Phone Alcoholics Anonymous”:

Deep auricular

Anterior tympanic

Middle meningeal

Inferior alveolar

Accessory meningeal



Deep temporal



Descending palatine


Posterior superior alveolar

Middle superior alveolar


Anterior superior alveolar

Artery of the pterygoid canal

Femoral hernia: epidemiology

FEMoral hernias are more common in FEMales.

Superior orbital fissure: structures passing through

“Live Free To See Absolutely No Insult”:

Lacrimal nerve

Frontal nerve

Trochlear nerve

Superior branch of oculomotor nerve

Abducent nerve

Nasociliary nerve

Inferior branch of oculomotor nerve

V3: sensory branches “Buccaneers Are Inferior Linguists”:



Inferior alveolar


Spinal cord: length in vertebral column


Spinal Cord Until L2 (LL).

Ansa cervicalis nerves

“GHost THought SOmeone STupid SHot Irene”:



Superior Omohyoid



Inferior omohyoid

Bronchopulmonary segments of right lung

“A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm”:

� In order from superior to inferior:







Medial basal

Anterior basal

Lateral basal

Posterior basal

Psoas major: innervation

If you hit L2, 3, 4

Psoas gets sore!

Superior mediastinum contents


Brachiocephalic veins

Arch of aorta


Superior vena cava



Nerves (vagus & phrenic)

Thoracic duct

Internal iliac artery: anterior branches

What Bill admitted to Hilary: “I Milked Our Insatiable Intern’s Udders Under the Desk”:

Inferior gluteal

Middle rectal


Inferior vesical artery

Internal pudendal artery


U/D=Uterine artery (female)/ Deferential artery (male)

Bowel components

“Dublin Sisters Ceramic Red Colored Jewelry Apparently Illegal”:

� 2-4 letters of each component:









Radial nerve: muscles innervated

“Try A Big Chocolate Chip Sundae, Double Dip Cherries And Peanuts Preferably Included”:

� In order of their innervation, proximal to distal:




ext. Carpi radialis longus

ext. Carpi radialis brevis


ext. Digitorum

ext.Digiti minimi

ext. Carpi ulnaris

Abductor poll. longus

ext. Poll. brevis

ext. P poll. longus

ext. Indicis

� For the neighboring words that start with the same letter (eg: chocolate and chip), notice that the longer word in the mnemonic, corresponds to the longer of the two muscle names (ex: ext. carpi radialis longus and ext. carpi radialis brevis)

Ankle: anterior compartment of leg contents “The Hamptons Are Never Dull Parties”:

From medial malleolus:

Tibialis anterior tendon

(Extensor) Hallacus longus

Artery (anterior tibial)

Nerve (deep peroneal)

(Extensor) Digitorum

Peroneus tertius

Cubital fossa contents

“Really Need Booze To Be At My Nicest”:

� From lateral to medial:

Radial Nerve

Biceps Tendon

Brachial Artery

Median Nerve

Cricoarytenoids: abductor vs. adductor

When aliens abduct you, they Probe you.

Posterior cricoarytenoids abduct. Lateral therefore is adduct by default.

Atrioventricular valves


Left Atrium: Bicuspid

Right Atrium: Tricuspid

Muscles: potentially absent ones Muscles which may be absent but may be important:

5 P’s:

Palmaris longus [upper limb]

Plantaris [lower limb]

Peroneus tertius [lower limb]

Pyramidalis [anterior abdominal wall]

Psoas minor [posterior abdominal wall]

Brachial plexus: numbers of each section  It is the same backwards and forwards:


5 Rami

3 Trunks

2 Divisions

3 Cords

5 Terminal nerves

Umbilical ligaments: contents


� From lateral to medial:

lateral umbilical ligament: Inferior epigastric vessels

medial unbilical ligament: Obliterated umbilical artery

median umbilical ligament: Urachus

Vetebrae subtypes “Certain Doctors Luv Saddling Coeds”:

From superior to inferior:






Leg: anterior muscles of leg

“The Hospitals Are Not Dirty Places”:

T: Tibialis anterior

H: extensor Hallucis longus

A: anterior tibial Artery

N: deep fibular Nerve

D: extensor Digitorum longus

P: Peronius tertius [aka fibularis tertius]

Ear: bones of inner ear MIS has a new sari.




� Describes the shape, and relative position (from out to in) of the inner ear bones.

� Alternatively: “Mailing Includes Stamps”.

Eye rotation by oblique muscles

“I Love S&M”:

Inferior oblique: Lateral eye rotation.

Superior oblique: Medial eye rotation.

Brachial artery is medial to biceps tendon


Brachial Artery is Medial to Biceps In elbow.

Retroperitoneal organs (major)

“AC/DC Rocker Kids Party Down”:

Ascending Colon

Descending Colon





Ossification ages

“Every Potential Anatomist Should Know When”

� When they ossify, in order of increasing year:

Elbow: 16 years

Pelvis, Ankle: 17 years

Shoulder, Knee: 18 years

Wrist: 19 years

Foramen ovale contents


Otic ganglion (just inferior)

V3 cranial nerve

Accessory meningeal artery

Lesser petrosal nerve

Emissary veins

Bronchopulmonary segments of the left lung

“Astute Anatomists Share Inside Secrets About Lungs”:

Apicoposterior (S1+2)

Anterior (S3)

Superior (S4)

Inferior (S5)

Superior (S6)

Anteromedial basal (S7+8)

Lateral basal (S9)

Carpal bones (multangular names)

“Never Lower Tillie’s Pants. Mother May Come Home.”:





greater Multangular (trapezium)

lesser Multangular (trapezoid)



Horner’s syndrome: components


� Horner’s is:




� Extra details with HORNY PAMELa:





Loss of ciliospinal reflex

Coelic trunk: branches

Left Hand Side (LHS):

Left gastric artery

Hepatic artery

Splenic artery

Biceps brachii muscle: origins

“You walk shorter to a street corner. You ride longer on a superhighway.”:

� Short head originates from coracoid process.

� Long head originates from the supraglenoid cavity.

Heart valve sequence

“Try Pulling My Aorta”:





Bell’s palsy: symptoms

BELL’S Palsy:

Blink reflex abnormal


Lacrimation [deficient, excess]

Loss of taste

Sudden onset

Palsy of VII nerve muscles

� All symptoms are unilateral.

Inguinal canal: walls

“MALT: 2M, 2A, 2L, 2T”:

� Starting from superior, moving around in order to posterior:

Superior wall (roof): 2 Muscles:

� internal oblique Muscle

� transverse abdominus Muscle

Anterior wall: 2 Aponeuroses:

� Aponeurosis of external oblique

� Aponeurosis of internal oblique

Lower wall (floor): 2 Ligaments:

� inguinal Ligament

� lacunar Ligament

Posterior wall: 2Ts:

� Transversalis fascia

� conjoint Tendon

Cruciate ligaments: insertions


Posterior [passes] Anterior [inserts] Medially.

Anterior [passes] Posteriorly [inserts] Laterally.

Tibia: muscles of pes anserinus (the muscles attached to tibia’s medial side)

“A Girl between Two Sargeants”:

Gracilus is between

Sartorius and


Lower limb peripheral nerve injurys

“Drop into a DEeP PIT and shuffle your way out”:

Foot Drop results from Dorsiflexors and Evertors paralysis, due to common Peroneal nerve lesion.

Plantarflexion and Inversion impairment due to Tibial nerve lesion, results in a shuffling gait.

Genu valgum vs. genu vargum

Genu valGUM (knock-knee): knees are GUMmed together.

� Varum (bowleg) is the other by default, or Far rhymes with Var, so knees are far apart.

Supination vs. pronation

“SOUPination”: Supination is to turn your arm palm up, as if you are holding a bowl of soup.

“POUR-nation”: Pronation is to turn your arm with the palm down, as if you are pouring out whatever is your bowl.

� Alternatively, Pronation donation: Pronation is palm facing downward, as if making a donation.

Mediastinums: posterior mediastinum structures

There are 4 birds:

The esophaGOOSE (esophagus)

The vaGOOSE nerve

The azyGOOSE vein

The thoracic DUCK (duct)

Thigh: innervation by compartment

“MAP OF Sciatic”:

Medial compartment: Obturator

Anterior compartment: Femoral

Posterior compartment: Sciatic

� So all the thigh muscles in that compartment get innervated by that nerve.

Popliteal fossa: medial to lateral arrangment

“Serve And Volley Next Ball”:

Semimembranosus/ Semitendonosus




Biceps femoris

� Lateral and medial heads of Gastrocnemius are inferior borders.

Internal pudendal branches

“I Pee Pee But Don’t Dump!”:

Inferior rectal

Posterior scrotal (or labial)



Deep artery

Dorsal artery

Erector spinae muscles: order

Spinalis is on the spine (most medial).

Iliocostalis is on the ribs (most lateral).

And it’s a Long (Longissimus) way between the spine and the ribs!

Hand fractures: Colle’s vs. Smith’s

Colle’s fracture: arm in fall position makes a ‘C’ shape.

Smith’s fracture: arm in fall position makes a ‘S’ shape.

� See diagram.

Arm fractures: nerves affected by humerus fracture location

ARM fracture:

� From superior to inferior:

Axillary: head of humerus

Radial: mid shaft

Median: supracondular

Extraocular muscles: movements

“ObliqLiques cause lateral rotation of eyeball”:

� Obliques cause lateral, all other rectii are medial rotators of the eyeball.

Action of the obliques is opposite to their names.

Action of the rectii is rightly fitting to their names.

Both superiors cause intorsion and both inferiors cause extorsion.

Broad ligament: contents


Bundle (ovarian neurovascular bundle)

Round ligament

Ovarian ligament

Artefacts (vestigial structures)

Duct (oviduct)

Cardiac valves: order in circuit

“TRI berore you BI”:

Tricuspid valve is located in left heart and Bicuspid valve is located in right heart. Blood flows through the tricuspid before bicuspid.

Diaphragm apertures: spinal levels

Aortic hiatus = 12 letters = T12

Oesophagus = 10 letters = T10

Vena cava = 8 letters = T8

Heart valves: order in circuit

“First learn a Tricycle, then learn a Bicycle”:

Flow through Tricuspid first, then Bicuspid.

Lung lobes: one having lingula, lobe numbers

Lingula is on Left.

The lingula is like an atrophied lobe, so the left lung must have 2 “other” lobes, and therefore right lung has 3 lobes.

External jugular vein: tributaries


Posterior external jugular vein

Anterior jugular vein

Suprascapular vein

Transverse cervical vein

Elbow joint: radius vs. ulna ends

CRAzy TULips:

Capitalum = RAdius

Trochlear = ULnar

Serratus Anterior: nerve vs. blood

LoNg thoracic: Nerve

LAteral thoracic: Artery

Elbow joint: capitulum vs. trochlea


Capitulum: Ulnar

Trochlea: Radial

Branches of Internal Iliac Artery

“I Love Going Places In My Very Own Underwear”:


Lateral sacral

Gluteal (superior and inferior)

Pudendal (internal)

Inferior vesicle (uterine in females)

Middle rectal




Wrist: radial side vs. ulnar side

“I cut off my thumb with a radial saw!”:

The radius is on the thumb side of the arm.

Pes anserinus: component tendons

“Some God*amned Tendon”:

� From medial to lateral:




Tibia vs. fibula: sizes

The Fibula is thin like a Flute.

The Tibia is thick like a Tuba.

Lower limb: muscles between upper legs

“There’s a GAP between upper legs when you sit without closing your knees”:




Muscles of respiration

“Don’t Exercise In Quicksand”:


External intercostals

Internal intercostals


Sacral plexus: posterior components

“Common Gluttons For Punishment”:

Common fibular

Gluteals (superior and inferior)

Femoral cutaneous (Posterior)

Piriformis nerve

Cervical vertebra: landmarks at each level

“NoaH Told MariaH To Try Cervical Counting”:

Nose (base), Hard palate: C1

Teeth: C2

Mandible, Hyoid bone: C3

Thyroid cartilage (upper): C4

Thyroid cartilage (lower): C5

Cricoid cartilage: C6

Cricoid cartilage (just below): C7

Deltoid: proximal attachments

Deltoid CLASPs:

Clavicle, Acromion and Spine of the scapula.

Musculocutaneous nerve: muscles supplied


Biceps brachii



Pharynx vs. larynx

Eat Phood with your Pharynx. Sing La La La with your Larynx

Posterior mediastinum: contents


Descending aorta

Azygos and hemiazygous veins

Thoracic duct


Sympathetic trunk/ganglia

Skull bones

“STEP OF 6 ”

� The 6 skull bones are:







� Alternatively: “STEP OFf my skull”.

Balance organs: relative position of saccule vs. utricle

“Your SAC is below U”:

Saccule is below the Utricle.

� Note: “sac” is slang for male genitalia, and it thus down “below”.

Grey vs. white rami communicantes  WhIte = On the Way In to the sympathetic trunk

GrEy = Exiting the sympathetic trunk

Lingula location

LingULa = Left Upper Lobe

Femoral triangle: boundaries “Femoral triangle is shaped like a SAIL”:


Aductor longus

Inguinal Ligament

Bifurcation vertebral landmarks A bifurcation occurs on 4th level of each vertebral column:

C4: bifurcation of common carotid artery

T4: bifurcation of trachea

L4: bifurcation of aorta

Intrinsic muscles of hand (palmar surface)

“All For One And One For All”:

� Thenar:

Abductor pollicis longus

Flexor pollicis brevis

Opponens pollicis

Adductor pollicis.

� Hypothenar:

Opponens digiti minimi

Flexor digiti minimi

Abductor digiti minimi

Rheumatic fever: Jones 5 major criteria  SPACE:

Subcutaneous nodules




Erythema Marginatum