Histology slides for medical students

Collection of the pictures of important histology slides taken from a microscope . The images are arranged according to Systems and are extremely useful for medical students.

Contents:

General
Musculoskeletal System
Central Nervous System
Gastro-Intestinal System
Cardiovascular system
Respiratory System
Reproductive System
Renal System
Endocrine System

General

Cuboidal gland

Cube shaped, central nucleus.

eg. salivary, pancreatic duct, collecting tubules of kidney

histology slide of cuboidal gland

Elastic cartilage of epiglottis

1. Condrocytes are present in lacunae.

2. Matrix is made of elastic fibres predominantly.

3. Perichondrium is present.

histology slide of elastic cartilage

Brown Adipose Tissue

histology slide of brown adipose tissue

Thick skin

1. Lined by stratified squamous epithelium.

2. Presence of keratin layer.

3. Epidermal projections into dermis are epidermal papillae.

4. Dermal projections into epidermis are dermal papillae.

 

Thin skin

1. Presence of hair follicles.

2. Lined by stratified squamous keratinized epithelium.

3. Presence of dermis and epidermis.

histology slide of thin skin

Hyaline cartilage of bronchus

1. Presence of pericondrium.

2. Presence of cell nests.

3. Presence of condrocytes in the cell nests.

4. Matrix contains collagen fibers.

histology slide of hyaline cartilage of bronchus

Lymph Node

Presence of capsule and subcapsular sinus

Differentiated into cortex and medulla

Cortex has follicles: primary and secondary (pale staining germinal centre).

histology slide of lymph node

Epiglottis

It has both lingual and laryngeal surface

Lingual surface is lined with stratified squamous non keratinizing epithelium while laryngeal surface is lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

Central elastic cartilage forms its framework

histology slide of epiglottis

Fibrous cartilage

histology slide of fibrous cartilage

Muscular Artery

Innermost tunica intima with endothelium and subendothelial connective tissue

Thick middle layer is tunica media with smooth muscles and elastic fibre in form of internal and external elastic lamina

Outermost tunica adventitia consists of both collagen and elastic fibers

histology slide of muscular artery

Non Keratinized epithelium

A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basal membrane. Only one layer is in contact with the basement membrane; the other layers adhere to one another to maintain structural integrity.

eg oral mucosa, vagina,anal canal

histology slide of non keratinized epithelium

Skeletal muscle

1. Muscle fibers donot branch.

2. Nucleus is located in the periphery.

3. Presence of cross striations.

histology slide of skeletal muscle

Smooth muscle

1. Myocytes are spindle shaped.

2. Myocytes contain central nuclleus.

 

Tendon

Compact linear collagen fibers seen.

Few scattered, inactive fibroblasts with nuclei

Poor vascularity, tiny nerve endings and tendon stretch receptors see.

histology slide of tendon

Reticular fibers

histology slide of reticular fibers

Caridac muscle

1. Muscle fibers are branching.

2. Nucleus is centrally placed.

3. Presence of intercalated discs.

histology slide of cardiac muscle

Musculo skeletal System

Bone – TS

The osteocytes are arranged in concentric rings of bone matrix called lamellae (little plates), and their processes run in interconnecting canaliculi. The central Haversian canal, and horizontal canals (perforating/Volkmann’s) canals contain blood vessels and nerves from the periosteum.

histology slide of transverse section of bone

Cancellous bone

Bones are much more porous with larger haversian canals and fewer lamellae.

Gives characteristic honeycomb appearance. Adaption to compressive forces.

Present near epiphyseal region of long bones, iliac crest.

histology slide of brown adipose tissue

Central Nervous System

Ganglion

1. Discrete aggregation of neurone cell bodies located outside CNS.

2. Nuuclei tend to be eccentrically located.

3. Satellite cells are smaller in number & irregularly placed due to numerous dendritic process.

histology slide of ganglion

Peripheral Nerve – LS

1. Cut section of axons are seen.

2. Axons lined by myelin sheath.

3. Nodes of Ranvier seen.

histology slide of peripheral nerve

Peripheral Nerve – TS

1. Cut section of nerve fiber bundles are seen.

2. Perineurium is seen.

histology slide of transverse section of peripheral nerve

Cerebellum

 Located in post cranial fossa and covered superiorly by the tentorium cerebelli.

Histologically:

A. Outer grey matter:

i. Outer molecular layer which contains stellate and basket cells & their processes.

ii.Purkinje layer contains purkinje cells and golgi cells.

ii. Inner granular layer contains numerous granule cells.

B. Inner white matter: Deeply convulated folds or folia supported by a branching central medulla of white matter.

histology slide of cerebellum

Cerebrum

histology slide of cerebrum

Spinal cord

histology slide of spinal cord

Eye

Retina of eye has 8 layers. From outer to inner:

1. Pigment cell layer

2. Layers of rods and cones

3. External nuclear layer

4. External plexiform layer

5. Inner nuclear layer: has 3 types of neurons Bipolar neurons, horizontal neurons and amacrine cells

6. Internal plexiform layers

7. Layer of ganglion cells

8 Layers of optic nerve fibers

histology slide of eye

histology slide of filliform papillae

Tongue fungiform papillae

histology slide of fungiform papillae of tongue

Ileum

histology slide of ileum

Jejunum

histology slide of jejunum

Liver

Hepatocytes extend as cord between central vein and portal triad in each corner

Bile canaliculi and hepatic sinusoids are present

Portal triad structure with bile duct,hepatic arteriole and hepatic venule are present.

histology slide of liver

Duodenum

histology slide of duodenum

Esophagus

Mucosa with stratified squamous epithelium.

Small seromucous gland in the submucosa

Muscularis propria differentiated into outer longitudinal and inner circular.

histology slide of esophagus

Cardio-esophageal junction

Abrupt transition from stratified squamous epithelium to glandular mucosa

Muscularis propria of esophagus is continuous with stomach

Esophageal cardiac glands are present in lamina propria.

histology slide of cardio-esophageal junction

Appendix

Lymphoid masses within mucosa and submucosa often forming germinal center

Mucosal glands are much less closely packed than large intestine

Colon

Closely spaced straight tubular glands or crypts that extends deep to muscularis mucosa

Epithelium consists of goblet cells and columnar absorptive cells

Three longitudinal muscle layers called taenia coli are present.

histology slide of colon

Gall bladder

Mucosa is thrown into numerous folds with loose submucosa

Fibres of muscular layer are arranged in longitudinal, transverse and oblique orientation and don’t form distinct layers

Tall columnar cells with basal nuclei are seen.

histology slide of gall bladder

GB

histology slide of GB

Pancreas

Lobulated organ with collagenous capsule which extends as septa

Exocrine component made by pancreatic acini

Endocrine component composed of islets of langerhans.

histology slide of pancreas

Pancreato-duodenal junction

Mucosal ridges become broader, more irregular.

Lymphatic nodules are seen between the stomach and duodenum

Mucous secreting stomach epithelium changes to intestinal epithelium(goblet cells with microvilli)

histology slide of pancreato-duodenal junction

Parotid gland

Gland(serous) is divided into numerous lobules with secretory unit

Presence of connective tissue septa extending from capsule with blood vessels, nerves seen

Intercalated duct also seen

Presence of lobules and connective tissue septa is common feature of all three types of gland

We need not differentiate, simply identify as salivary gland.

histology slide of parotid gland

Spleen

histology slide of spleen

body of Stomach

histology slide of body of stomach

Sublingual gland

Mucous acini are predominant forms.

histology slide of sublingual gland

Submandibular gland

Mixed mucous and serous cells seen

Mucous cells(lightly stained) have serous demilunes(deeply stained)

histology slide of submandibular gland

Cardio vascular system

Aorta

Endothelium with subendothelial connective tissue

Elastic fibres (more) and muscles constitute the bulk of tunica media

Tunica adventitia with connective tissue and vasa vasorum.

histology slide of aorta

Venacava

Tunica adventitia with vasa vasorum and longitudinal smooth muscle layers

Tunica media with thin layer of circular muscles

Endothelium with subendothelial connective tissue.

histology slide of venacava

Respiratory System

Trachea

Incomplete C shaped cartilage present

Trachealis muscle is present posteriorly where cartilage is incomplete

Lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

histology slide of trachea

Bronchus

Flattened cartilage plates are present

Lined by respiratory epithelium with fewer goblet cells

Smooth muscles between lamina propria and submucosa which become prominent in distal bronchi

histology slide of bronchus

Lung

* In its histologic section, there are bronchi, bronchioles(terminal and respiratory) and alveolar sac and alveoli.

* Alveoli are small air filled pouches separated by alveolar septa.

* flattened pneumocytes and rich capillary network present.

histology slide of lung

Reproductive System

Vas deferens

It has inner and outer longitudinal muscle layer and intermediate circular layer(same like urinary bladder)

Lined by pseudostratified epithelium thrown into folds

Lamina propria beneath the epithelium with collagen

histology slide of vas deferens

Epididymis

histology slide of epidiymis

Graffian Follicles

histology slide of graffian follicles

Prostrate

Composed of glands and stroma

Stroma made of supporting collagenous tissue with smooth muscle

Glands with convoluted pattern lined by tall columnar secretory cells with flat basal cells

Inspissated calcified concretions may accumulate forming corpora amylacea

histology slide of prostrate

Seminal vesicle

Highly irregular and recessed lumen giving a honeycomb appearance

Epithelial lining is of pseudostratified columnar with secretory cells and lipid droplets in cytoplasm giving it foamy appearance

Prominent muscular wall with arrangement into inner circular and outer longitudinal layer

histology slide of seminal vesicle

Testis

Dense fibrous capsule outside called tunica albuginea and has:

myofibroblasts, smooth muscles

Deepest layer of tunica albuginea called tunica vasculosa has blood and lymphatics

Inside testis:

There are lobules each with many seminiferous tubules lined by:

Germ cells in various stages of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis collectively called spermatogenic series

Non germ cells called sertoli cells

In the interstitial cells, there are supporting leydig cells.

histology slide of testis

Penis

3 columns of erectile tissues

Two dorsal columns are called corpora cavernosa and one ventral column is called corposa spongiosum

Through corpora spongiosum, penile urethra passess

Erectile corposa are enclosed within and separated by fibrocollagenous septa F

Finally enclosed within the sheath of skin with blood vessels

histology slide of penis

Mammary gland in Lactating stage

Large no. of distended alveoli filled with secretions and vacuoles

Irregular branching of alveoli

Increased presence of adipose tissue

In mammary gland typical features: no need to distinguish lactating and resting

Adipose tissue with fibrous septa

Branching tubuloacinar gland

Glandular epithelium with epithelial and myoepithelial cells

Note : mammary gland could be confused with thyroid; generally mammary gland is more or less heterogenous while thyroid is homogenous.

histology slide of mammary gland in lactating stage

Mammary gland in resting stage

histology slide of mammary gland in resting stage

Uterus Secreting

In all, uterus has perimetrium,myometrium and endometrium

Endometrium has stratum basalis,stratum compactum and spongiosum

Proliferative: Straight tubular glands; Increased thickness of endometrium

Secretory: Coiled tubular glands; Increased thickness of endometrium.

histology slide of uterus in secreting phase

Uterus proliferating

histology slide of uterus in proliferating phase

Ovary

Has two layers: germinal epithelium and stroma

Stroma has: cortex and medulla

Cortex: outer(tunica albuginea) and inner(follicles at various stages)

Medulla: has helicine arteries and hilus cells

histology slide of ovary

Oviduct

histology slide of oviduct

Cervix

Cervical canal in cervix is lined with tall mucus secreting columnar epithelium

Branched tubular cervical glands also seen

Lamina propria with more fibrous tissue, blood vessels seen.

In the lower end of cervix, the os cervix bulges into lumen of vaginal canal and epithelium abruptly changes there from columnar to stratified squamous.

histology slide of cervix

Vagina

Mucosa is irregular with folds

Lamina propria with dense irregular connective tissue and lymphatics

Predominantly oblique layer of muscles present in muscularis propria.

Adventitia with blood vessels and nerve fibres.

histology slide of vagina

 


Renal System

Ureter

Presence of transitional epithelium

Upper two third contains inner longitudinal and outer circular @COLI

(COLI in ureter (@since e.coli is common in lower urinary tract)

Lower one third contains additional outer longitudinal layer.

histology slide of ureter

Urinary bladder

It resembles lower one third of ureter:

The urinary bladder slide in our college is not of human( in human, preparation of complete circumference would not be possible)so slide in college have complete circumference. One way to distinguish ureter and urinary bladder is to compare magnification.

If we see complete lumen in 4 magnification, its urinary bladder

If we seen completer lumen in 10 magnification, its ureter. So look in focused lens also

histology slide of urinary bladder

Glomerulus of Kidney

histology slide of glomerulus of kidney

Endocrine

Adrenal cortex

Outer cortex and inner medulla

Prominent vein V in the center.

Cortex has 3 regions:

Zona glomerulosa: secretory cells in rounded clusters

Zona fasciculata: parallel cords of secretory cells

Zona reticularis: small closely packed cells in irregular cords

histology slide of adrenal cortex

Thymus

histology slide of thymus

Thyroid

Consists of thyroid follicles and parafollicular cells(C cells)

Parafollicular cells are present in interstices between the follicles

Thyroid follicles has:

Cuboidal and flat lining epithelium (at inactive)

Columnar and tall lining epithelium( at active)

Homogenous colloid inside (stained pink)

histology slide of thyroid

Pituitary gland

Two main population of cells:

Chromophils(strongly staining cytoplasm)

Chromophobes(weakly staining cytoplasm)

Chromophils are also two types:

Acidophils

Basophils

Capillaries between the clumps of secretory cells.

histology slide of pituitary gland

Histology slides for medical students
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