Approach to patient

Approach to a patient with Acute Abdomen

Acute abdomen refers to previously undiagnosed pain that arises suddenly having duration of 7 days (mostly less than 48 hours) and usually needs immediate surgical intervention. Causes according to age Neonates: Intestinal atresia and stenosis, meconium ileus, meconium peritonitis, imperforate anus, annular pancreas Infants: Intussusception, Volvulus, Meckel’s diverticulitis Children: Round worm infestation, Appendicitis, Mesenteric lymphadenitis  Adults: […]

Approach to a patient with cyanosis

Cyanosis is an abnormal bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to the presence of reduced hemoglobin in the blood. The blue color usually represents excessive amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin, although, in some patients, it results from increased amounts of methemoglobin or sulfhemoglobin. Cyanosis may be central or peripheral. In central cyanosis, the […]

Approach to a patient with jaundice

Jaundice (icterus) is the accumulation of, and colouring of the skin and mucous membranes by, bilirubin, if it appears in excessive amounts or is not conjugated or excreted. Jaundice is usually first noted in the eyes, but the traditional term for this finding (scleral icterus) is actually a misnomer because pathologic studies reveal most of […]

Approach to a patient with rash

The clinical appearance of a rash, a thorough history, and some knowledge of pathology of common conditions are necessary to make an accurate dermatological diagnosis. Certain rashes follow a typical pattern anatomically and aid the diagnosis. Other rashes are important markers of systemic disease and must be recognized in acute medical presentations. Skin problems are […]

Approach to a patient with fever

According to studies of healthy individuals 18 to 40 years of age, the mean oral temperature is 36.8°± 0.4°C (98.2°± 0.7°F), with low levels at 6 A.M. and higher levels at 4 to 6 P.M. The maximum normal oral temperature is 37.2°C (98.9°F) at 6 A.M. and 37.7°C (99.9°F) at 4 P.M. These values define […]

Approach to a patient with edema

Accumulation of excessive fluid in the interstitial space- Edema Edema result from lymphatic stasis- Lymphoedema Edema may be localized or generalized, If the edema is generalized – Anasarca Edema may be pitting or non-pitting. Pathogenesis of Edema in malnourished Exactly not known but it has been proposed that there is the diversion of fluid from […]

Approach to a patient with oliguria

Oliguria is defined as a decrease in urine production below the minimal acceptable rate of 1 to 2 ml/kg/hr. Oliguria can occur as a normal physiologic response or as a manifestation of pathology within the renal system. Differentiating between physiologic and pathologic oliguria is essential to making appropriate clinical decisions and assessing the severity of […]

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